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Flashcards in Lecture 11 Emotions Deck (68)
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1
Q

Emotion is typically referred to as an ___ behavioral state called ___.

A

inferred, affect

2
Q

We can infer someone’s affect based on their ___.

A

behaviors (what they do and say)

3
Q

Emotions are subjective feelings about various ___ or ___.

A

stimuli or events

4
Q

Affective behavior is internal and ___.

A

subjective

5
Q

What are the four components of emotions from a classical perspective?

A

physiological, motor, self-report, unconscious behavior

6
Q

Emotions include ___ and ___ nervous activity – which results in ___ and ___ changes and activity.

A

central, autonomic, neurohormonal, visceral

7
Q

Emotions produce changes in ___ rate, ___ pressure, ___, and ___ system.

A

heart, blood, perspiration, digestive

8
Q

Emotions produce release of ___ that affect the brain and/or autonomic system.

A

hormones

9
Q

What motor behaviors express emotional states?

A

facial expression, tone of voice, posture

10
Q

Motor behaviors expressing emotional states are important because they convey overt actions that can differ from observed ____ behavior (i.e., incongruent)

A

verbal

11
Q

Without ____ information, many text messages are left open to endless interpretations.

A

motoric

12
Q

____ play a very important role in ____ our emotions.

A

cognitions, shaping

13
Q

Many cognitive and affective processes are inferred from ____ rankings (such as PANAS).

A

self-reported

14
Q

Our cognition of emotions is comprised of both ____ emotional feelings (e.g., I feel happy) and ____ processes (memories, plans, ideas) that influence the way we ____.

A

subjective, cognitive, feel

15
Q

____ processes often influence unconscious behaviors.

A

cognitive

16
Q

Cognitive processes that influence unconscious behaviors are responsible for altering our behaviors and may include decisions made on the basis of ____, ____, ____.

A

intuition, “hunch”/”whim”, a craving

17
Q

Psychologists began speculating about emotions in the early 1900s – however, they had LITTLE TO NO KNOWLEDGE about the ____ basis of emotional ____.

A

neural, behavior

18
Q

By the 1920s, physiologists were investigating the relation between ____, ____, and ____ states, and inferred emotional states.

A

autonomic, endocrine, neurohormonal

19
Q

Early physiologists looked at heart rate, blood pressure, and ____ ____.

A

skin temperature

20
Q

Philip Bard revealed that decorticated dogs displayed strong feelings of ____ to seemingly ____ stimuli. Such a response was initated by which brain structure?

A

rage, trivial, diencephalon

21
Q

The diencephalon includes what structures?

A

thalamus (right and left) and hypothalamus

22
Q

Hess and Flynn revealed that stimulating different regions of the ____ was responsible for eliciting different “affective responses.”

A

hypothalamus

23
Q

The ____ appeared to play an important role in activating the cortex during autonomic arousal – as a way of helping ____ the emotion to the ____ ____.

A

thalamus, orient, appropriate stimulus

24
Q

Hess and Flynn’s animal studies were important because they led to the idea that collectively, the ____ and ____ contain the neural circuits responsible for the ____ expression of emotion and the ____ responses to such emotions.

A

hypothalamus, thalamus, overt, autonomic

25
Q

One aspect of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome (KBS) is a ____ of ____.

A

lack of affect

26
Q

Animals with KBS show ____ fear to threatening stimuli like snakes and threat signals from other humans.

A

no

27
Q

In monkeys, bilateral ____ ____ lobectomy resulted in tameness, increased sex drive w/ inappropriate objects, loss of fear, indiscriminate diet, increased attention to all visual stimuli (hypermetamorphosis), oral examination of all objects, and visual agnosia.

A

anterior temporal

28
Q

KBS in humans and monkeys appears to be related to the ____ removal (or damage) of: the ____ AND bilateral inferior ____ cortices.

A

bilateral, amygdala, inferior temporal

29
Q

Evidence from animal, neuropsychological, and imaging studies suggest that the amygdala plays an important role in the ____ of ____.

A

recognition of fear

30
Q

Frontal lobe removal had an effect on ____ and possibly ____ in chimpanzees.

A

learning, emotions

31
Q

Experimental findings in the 1960s revealed that results of ____ lobotomies on humans clearly had severe effects on both ____ and ____ behaviors, as was previously evidenced in rats, cats, and monkeys.

A

frontal, social, affective

32
Q

____ lobotomy patients became passive and lacked ____.

A

frontal, motivation

33
Q

Facial expressions appear to be predominantly on the ____ side of the face.

A

left

34
Q

Asymmetrical facial expressions reveal ____-hemisphere specialization in ____ emotions.

A

right, producing

35
Q

When people are asked to ____ an emotion, the emotion is seen more on the ____ side of the face.

A

hide, right

36
Q

In a facial expression discrimination task, asking subjects to correctly identify happy and sad faces, subjects were better at identifying stimuli presented to the ____ hemi space. This means there is a ____-brain hemisphere specialization in perception of facial expression (a/k/a nonverbal communication).

A

left, right

37
Q

In an auditory study, Dimond and colleagues found that the left ear was more specialized for ____ ____ while the right was more specialized for ____ ____.

A

emotional tone, identifying content

38
Q

The limbic system encircles the ____ and consists of: the ____ gyrus, the ____ formation, the ___, the ___, and the ____ ___. [hnt; CHATM]; (not on slide, but also includes H__, S__, and F__.)

A

brainstem, cingulate, hippocampal, mammillary bodies (hypothalamus, septum, fornix)

39
Q

What structure is responsible for ELICITING the affective response?

A

hypothalamus

40
Q

What two brain structures are said to hold the key to understanding the nature of an emotional experience.

A

amygdala, PFC

41
Q

Amygdala receives inputs from all sensory systems. In fact, many cells in the amygdala are ____.

A

multisensory

42
Q

The ____ can create complex images of the sensory world – especially those that are threatening or fearful.

A

amygdala

43
Q

____ & paralimbic (amygdala) lesions in monkeys produce changes in many social behaviors, including altering social preference, reducing social ____ and ____, and reducing affect and ____.

A

PFC, interactions, dominance, vocalization

44
Q

The close anatomical connections btwn the ____ and the ____, and the emotional changes after lesions to these areas, suggest that they belong to a neural circuit ____ emotional behavior.

A

PFC, amygdala, regulating

45
Q

What are the three theories of emotion relating it to cognition?

A

Damasio’s somatic marker, Le Doux’s cognitive-emotional interaction theory, Gainotti’s lateralization theory

46
Q

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio) holds that emotions consist of changes in ____ and ____ states in response to the ____ of a particular event.

A

body and brain states, evaluation

47
Q

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio) holds that emotions are fundamental for ____, and that ____ ____ cannot be made without experiencing emotions.

A

survival, rational decisions

48
Q

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio) holds that the greater the ____, the lesser the ____ of emotions the person can demonstrate.

A

damage, range

49
Q

Le Doux’s evolutionary theory asserts that emotions ____ to enhance the ____ of an animal.

A

evolved, survival

50
Q

Le Doux’s theory claims that as the brain evolved, cognitive and emotional processes…

A

grew more and more interrrelated

51
Q

In contrast to Damasio, Le Doux attempts to model ____ ____ (instead of ____ ____).

A

only fear, all emotions

52
Q

Our fear system includes both unconscious fear ____ and conscious awareness of ____ ____ of fear.

A

responses, subjective feelings

53
Q

What is the key brain structure in the development of conditioned fear?

A

amygdala

54
Q

Amygdala subsequently sends outputs to stimulate ____ release and activate ____ nervous system, thereby generating an ____.

A

hormone, autonomic, emotion

55
Q

Le Doux holds that an important aspect of fear is ____ – often shaped by ____.

A

context, learning

56
Q

____ damage would clearly interfere with the development of ____ fear associations (Le Doux).

A

hippocampal, contextual

57
Q

Gainotti’s theory of Cognitive Asymmetry and Emotion holds that emotional systems are ____.

A

lateralized

58
Q

Left hemisphere lesions result in ____ reactions characterized by fearfulness and ____, and are associated with ____.

A

catastrophic, depression, aphasia

59
Q

Right hemisphere lesions result in ____, and are associated with ____ ____.

A

indifference, contralateral neglect

60
Q

Strong emotions (fear and anger) are caused only by the ____ hemisphere.

A

right

61
Q

The right hemisphere is more engaged in the ____ components of emotion, and the left hemisphere is more engaged in overall ____ ____ of emotion.

A

automatic, cognitive control

62
Q

The left hemisphere ____ feelings, whereas the right hemisphere ____ them.

A

interprets, generates

63
Q

Both sides of the brain play ____ roles in emotional behavior, yielding a ____ level of emotional processing (Gainotti).

A

complementary, conceptual

64
Q

Abnormal emotional behavior results from: inability to ____ and ____ appropriate emotional and social behaviors; and, misinterpretation of social/emotional ____ from others.

A

produce and express, signals

65
Q

Clinical tests of emotional perception are designed to assess ____ in ____ after ____.

A

changes, personality, injury

66
Q

Cartoon matching test is a clinical test of ____ perception. It asks the person to choose the appropriate ____ for the blank ____.

A

emotional, expression, face

67
Q

In monkeys, bilateral ____ ____ lobectomy resulted in… [name 7]

A

tameness, increased sex drive w/ inappropriate objects, loss of fear, indiscriminate diet, increased attention to all visual stimuli, oral examination of all objects, visual agnosia

68
Q

Experimental psychosurgery findings in the 1960s showed that frontal lobotomies on humans clearly had severe effects on both ___ and ___ behaviors, as in animals. Patients became ___ and lacked ___ (e.g., Jack Nicholson, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest).

A

social, affective, passive, motivation