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Block 1 Framing the empire A340 The Roman Empire > A200 Block 1 unit 1 > Flashcards

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Exam terms

Compare - describe similarities, you are to emphasise similarities, although differences may be mentioned

Discuss - consider something from different points of view, and then give your own opinion, directs you to examine, analyse carefully, and present considerations pro and con regarding the problems or items involved. This type of question calls for a complete and entailed answer.

Explain - make clear; give reasons for, In such an answer it is best to state the "how or why," reconcile any differences in opinion or experimental results, and, where possible, state causes. The aim is to make plain the conditions which give rise to whatever you are examining.

Consider - think about carefully, Say what you think and have observed about something. Back up your comments using appropriate evidence from external sources, or your own experience. Include any views which are contrary to your own and how they relate to what you originally thought.

1

Three Themes of the course

state formation - political history = England, France, Burgundy circa 1400, German Empire 1871, USA 1776,

beliefs and ideologies - religious, intellectual and cultural history, Medieval Social Heirachies,

producers and consumers - social and economic history, clothiers first international manufacturers, global expansion and trade, capitalism, political economy

2

Medieval Western Europe

Roman influences

Christian Heritage

Germanic Roots

MEDIEVAL Period 500 - 1450/1500 AD Medieval = Middle Age, Medium Aievum - Late Middle Ages = 14th and 15th centuries

3

Time Periods

Medieval - 500 to 1500

Early Modern - 1450 to 1750

Renaissance- 1400 - 1600

4

The Three Estates

1st Clergy, priests, nuns, monks SPIRITUAL (head) supports the...

2nd Kings, Lords, Knights (torso)

3rd Serfs, Villeins, servitude, peasants, land, craft, industry, trade (feet) 90% of the population

5

Black Death 1347 arrives England 1348

50% mortality rate in England 1/3 of population wiped out , lump/boil in armpit, England point of origin Melcolm Regis 1348 pandemic final outbreak 1360-70s effects continue with the low point at mid 15th C population 2.5 was 6 million in England

Dramatic agent of long term historical change, raised wages, raised food prices, mobility

Crown attempts to control serfs (not slaves, had rights, could negotiate out of serfdom) via The Ordinance of Labours 1349, wages at pre plague rate, set wages, day labouring forbidden

6

Black Death Hundred Years' War and Revolt in France

Results - failing economy, less precious (adulterated) metal in coins, inflation, currency speculation, emergency taxation, peasants hardship

Uprising in Paris 1357-58 the Peasants' revolt or Jacquerie, attempted return to hard currency 1350s

Result - revolt crushed, thousands slaughtered

1360 peace between England and France momentarily



7

The Peasants Revolt 1381

Causes - all >16 heavy poll tax, sumptuary law classes to cloth as specific cost and type of garment, taxes due to high cost of war in France - 'The Hundred Years War'1337, burning and sacking of Rye and Winchelsea outrages peasants

Peasant leader - Watt Tyler, rebel priest John Ball

Demands- freedom, abolition of serfdom, equality before the law

Result - Archbishop of Canterbury and 160 others beheaded by peasants, rebellion crushed by young 14 year old king Richard II, 'serfs you are and serfs you will remain

8

The Hundred Years War 1337 - Guyenne, Gascony

Cause - protection of South Western Duchy of Guyenne - King's wine growing area and large income from in customs from wine trade

Church schism - 3 rival popes 1378-1417

9

3 Powers

England - a centralised state, common law, national parliament 1265 - Richard II (Grandson of Edward III and son of Edward The Black Prince) deposed by Henry IV, Lord Bolingbroke (the son of John of Gaunt who Richard hated and disinherited) 1399-1413 , Henry V 1413 - 21, Henry VI 1422-1461, rebellion by Northern Lords and Owen Glyndwr in Wales

France - a decentralised regional autonomous model, Clovis 5th C pagan conversion, Clotilde, Burgundian Princess and Saint, battle of Tolbial 496' Fleurs de lis coat of arms given her by a hermit who got them from heaven, defeats pagan rival and converts (Constantine?)

Burgundy - a federation, Philip the Bold, Flanders, Barbant, Artois