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Block 1 Framing the empire A340 The Roman Empire > Speech > Flashcards

Flashcards in Speech Deck (11):




Utterance-A complete unit of speech preceded by silence or a change of speaker (not used in writing), whole string of sentences, a single word, or a half spoken one

Dialect-Language as defined by its users spoken or written (will differ), a language peculiar to a specific region or group - GRAMMAR VARIATION, REGIONAL

Register-Language as defined by its USES spoken and written. In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to adhere more closely to prescribed grammar, pronounce words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choose more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refrain from using contractions such as ain't, than when speaking in an informal setting.


Dialect three types:-




R-Distinctive pattern of usage that occurs in a community located in a particular geographical location

S-Variety shared by people of the same class, social status, or educational background - Sociolect

M-A person's social environment e.g. Aristocratic, Working Class e.g. He grew up in an artistic milieu





General Principal

Individuality-Their voice's sound, shape of handwriting, turn of phrase, use of particular expressions used

Idiolect-the distinct pattern of language use that is 'unique' to an individual

The dialect of a particular social class

Language variation occurs according to different ways people are grouped e.g. Geographical location, social class, gender



Accent-How people pronounce the words they speak, it says where they are from, gender, education, social class, emotionally attached to home town, job, political party etc

Urban accents tend to survive, rural don't


Accent? Dialect?

The difference between accent and dialect is that whereas an accent is the way in which a person pronounces a language associated with a country or location, dialect is a form of language spoken by a group of people or people from a specific region. For example, someone from Liverpool will have a different accent from someone originating from Manchester.


Received Pronunciation

Standard English

RP - Was the norm, Received Pronunciation (RP) is the standard accent of Standard English in England, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms.[1] RP is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England",[2] although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.[3][4] Peter Trudgill estimated in 1974 that 3% of people in Britain were RP speakers.[5]

SE - Media, authority, prestige


Middle English

Standard English

Code Switching

ML-Norman Conquest 1100-1500

SE - government, influential, publishers, literary, writers, scholars, 14th C to 18th C

CS-Going between languages e.g. English - Indian, French, Latin


Discourse Community

DC-a group of people who share a common interest and use a specialised vocabulary amongst themselves, e.g. Choir, engineers, lawyers, Trekkies



Specialist Register



R-is another way which HOW something is said or written can be as important for the meaning of the message as WHAT is said or written e.g. Greet, inform, question,

SR-discourse communities:-sports fans, birdwTchers, safety advisers, Trekkies

Corollary-proved proposition followed by another based on this e.g. Language is a tool, so what is the best tool to use?

G-A category of artistic composition in music or literature characterised by similarities in form style or subject matter



I-the rise and fall of the voice in speaking e.g. She spoke English with a German or Australian intonation


A little strategy for approaching the Language Studies question

Just run through this list in relation to whatever you’re faced with. This gives a structure for your answer & ensures you match the ‘frame expectations’ (what your marker’s looking for!)

What is this? (eg. newspaper report or whatever)

Genre conventions (features of whatever form this is in)

Frame expectations (what in general readers expect from the form)

Specialised terminology & register (quote a couple of examples)

Discourse community (does it mean anything to those outside the particular community)

How is it structured? (sentences, paragraphs)

Analysis/ close reading : tone; vocabulary (eg adjectives & verbs & how these colour or are coloured). Discuss likely effects on readers

Conclude with reference to Wittgenstein’s ‘language-as-tool-box’ saying if the chosen ‘tools’ created the desired result. I.e. How it is used rather than an abstract analysis