Flashcards in Speech Deck (11):
Utterance-A complete unit of speech preceded by silence or a change of speaker (not used in writing), whole string of sentences, a single word, or a half spoken one
Dialect-Language as defined by its users spoken or written (will differ), a language peculiar to a specific region or group - GRAMMAR VARIATION, REGIONAL
Register-Language as defined by its USES spoken and written. In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to adhere more closely to prescribed grammar, pronounce words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choose more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child vs. kid, etc.), and refrain from using contractions such as ain't, than when speaking in an informal setting.
Dialect three types:-
R-Distinctive pattern of usage that occurs in a community located in a particular geographical location
S-Variety shared by people of the same class, social status, or educational background - Sociolect
M-A person's social environment e.g. Aristocratic, Working Class e.g. He grew up in an artistic milieu
Individuality-Their voice's sound, shape of handwriting, turn of phrase, use of particular expressions used
Idiolect-the distinct pattern of language use that is 'unique' to an individual
The dialect of a particular social class
Language variation occurs according to different ways people are grouped e.g. Geographical location, social class, gender
Accent-How people pronounce the words they speak, it says where they are from, gender, education, social class, emotionally attached to home town, job, political party etc
Urban accents tend to survive, rural don't
The difference between accent and dialect is that whereas an accent is the way in which a person pronounces a language associated with a country or location, dialect is a form of language spoken by a group of people or people from a specific region. For example, someone from Liverpool will have a different accent from someone originating from Manchester.
RP - Was the norm, Received Pronunciation (RP) is the standard accent of Standard English in England, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms. RP is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales. Peter Trudgill estimated in 1974 that 3% of people in Britain were RP speakers.
SE - Media, authority, prestige
ML-Norman Conquest 1100-1500
SE - government, influential, publishers, literary, writers, scholars, 14th C to 18th C
CS-Going between languages e.g. English - Indian, French, Latin
DC-a group of people who share a common interest and use a specialised vocabulary amongst themselves, e.g. Choir, engineers, lawyers, Trekkies
R-is another way which HOW something is said or written can be as important for the meaning of the message as WHAT is said or written e.g. Greet, inform, question,
SR-discourse communities:-sports fans, birdwTchers, safety advisers, Trekkies
Corollary-proved proposition followed by another based on this e.g. Language is a tool, so what is the best tool to use?
G-A category of artistic composition in music or literature characterised by similarities in form style or subject matter
I-the rise and fall of the voice in speaking e.g. She spoke English with a German or Australian intonation