A200 Block 5 Unit 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A200 Block 5 Unit 20 Deck (16):

The Rise of Nation States - Mazzini (bastard), nation

“Without a country you have no name, no identity, no voice, no rights, no membership in the brotherhood of nations – you remain just the bastards of humanity.” - Giuseppe Mazzini

Greece 1830, Belgium 1830, Italy 1861, Germany 1871, decline of Ottoman Empire, consolidation of England and France



Nation constructs old and new, subjects and citizens, sovereignty, Azeglio

End of 18th century people still 'subjects' under aristocracies, mid to end 19th - citizens of nation states

1789 - sovereignty lies fundamentally with 'the nation and people' not a body or individual

1861 Massimo D'Azeglio, 'we have made Italy, now we have to make Italians' - Italy still in civil war, Rome still The Papal State


France and Nationhood, Renan's soul, but dialects?

France, theologian Ernest Renan's 'What is a nation' - romantic view, a soul, a spiritual principle' 5 factors = race, language, religion, community of interests, geography, Renan dismisses as insufficient not spiritual enough!

However French govt. concerned on unity because - regional dialects, forced national language, also Bretons and The Vandee in the Revolution, some provinces less than enthusiastic about non association with German invaders


France and Nationhood Haussmann's one and Gambetta's stutter

Haussmann - 'our country', the most 'one' in the world


Gambetta - vast distances and vast gulf between 'those who speak our language and those many of our compatriots, cruel as it is to say so, can no more than stammer in it'


State terminology A state? A nation?

State - the apparatus of government pertaining to a particular geographical area, primarily an administrative and political entity

Nation- named human population, usually sharing a given territory, usually having a shared cultural history, often (but not always) speaking the same language and normally conscious of the fact that they constitute a nation - these people recognise each other as belonging to the same nation, the same 'national identity' - Ernest Gellner (1983)


State terminology II Nation States? Nation State Principal, Social Change

Nation States - one nation equals one state

The idea that every nation should govern itself is referred to as 'The Nation State Principal'

Social change driven by industrialisation and rapid urbanisation


Unifications and nation state creations Germany, Metternich and Italy

Germany in 18th Century is 300 states of varying sizes, still part of The Holy Roman Empire abolished in 1806

'Deutsche Bund' (German Cinfederation) 1815 39 states under Austrian chairmanship and Prince Metternich uses the Diet at Frankfurt to thwart liberal aspirations

Cause of two states Germany and Italy emerging - philosophical and political treatises (writings) poetry and cultural manifestations celebrating 'the nation', Romanticism


Romanticism German Style Fichte, Frederich, mythical manifestations

Gottlieb Fichte's 'Address to the German Nation' - 'It is essential that the higher love of Fatherland...reign supreme'

Casper Friedrich German Romantic artist 1829 'The Oak Tree in the Snow' dead branches of the lost past new life springs at the roots hinting at regeneration

New ideas that hark back to a mythical period of unity e.g. The Germans against Rome celebrating national solidarity that did not yet exist

Luther's bible gave the German's one language


Practical German Unity currency and tolls

1834 customs union The Zollverin

1838 a single currency


Other methods of unification in states education and composition, Acton's dream

France - educational programmes, Joan of Arc, national histories, the common education system in a common language gives individuals a feeling of community that they do not share with those abroad

England Lord Acton - advocated the presence of different nationalities within a single state, claiming that it was a necessary condition of civilised life - far sighted outlook


The Modernity of Nation States, historian's think glory and the Whig's think morality

Historians acquiesce to nationalists views on nation states e.g. Long-past glory, flowering of national unity etc.

Macaulay's 'Whig interpretation' of English History - the Victorians saw themselves as the heirs to the Romans, but with one important difference: instead of an autocratic emperor, the British had a limited, parliamentary monarchy which, they believed, placed Britain on a higher moral plane;


Historians now think that ...modernity played the main part, Glenner agrees

Nations and nationalism as phenomena connected with the ruse of the modern industrial societies that characterise Europe today, rather than something intrinsic or naturally present in human nature as previously proffered

Gellner argues that nation states are a modern phenomenon caused by the rise of industrial societies, feudal cultures 'horizontal' ruling classes languages and cultures quite separate from those they ruled Normans and English, Russian Court uses French language


Historians' views, Gellner and Breuilly

Gellner 1983, - nationalism 'invents' nations where they do not exist

Breuilly, 1993, - Nationalism...an especially appropriate form of political behaviour of the modern state, nationalists - political commitment of individuals who take advantage of the situation to bid for power - SNP


Historians' views Hobsbawm and Anderson

Hobsbawm 1990 - nationalism analysed on the basis of the hopes, needs, longings and interests of ordinary people, the cultural and social aspects, reinforcing a state which is essence an 'imagined community' making people concentrate on themselves I.e. The state e.g. Commemorative holidays like Bastille Day a multifaceted construction

Anderson 1991 - Three historical forces 1 Orinting, 2 Capitalism, 3 Diversity of Human Language simmered down to one e.g, Luther's Bible creates German a language from several standard dialects e.g. saxony that can be understood by all


When is a nation? 'Classical modernism' or 'ethnic roots'

Some historians think that Nationalism and nation states are modern, linked to the rise of industrial societies 18th C onwards aka 'classical modernism' (Lawrence)

Others say they can identify 'recognisable national sentiment' long before the onset of industrialisation and modernisation, Anthony Smith states that ethnic roots have to be considered with respect to the form and significance of a modern nation states creation


Hastings and Greenfields conjecture

Hastings - national consciousness could be discerned as early as the 12th century with strongest expressions appearing in the 16th century - I.e. In England, the first recognisable European nation - the prototype for the whole story

Smith acquiesces to the modern concept but also the factor of ethnicity, deeper roots, the 'ethenies' that preceded them aka ethno-symbolism and 'named ethnic communities with shared ancestry myths, histories, and cultures, having an association with a specific territory and a sense of solidarity e.g. England, France, Castile, Holland, Sweden pioneer States being the idea of 'the nation' for others