A200 Block 5 Unit 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A200 Block 5 Unit 18 Deck (10):
0

Decree of the National Convention (levee en masse) 1793, Le Chant du depart, 1794

Total war for The Republic, peace and Liberty, a sovereign people and Nation State (the French), the ultimate authority is with 'The People'

Posts held by ability not birth, a constitutional monarchy, all equal in law, establishment of departments as national areas, the church salaried servants of the state

1792 France declares war against monarchs not people, though some provinces e.g. Breton unenthusiastic at being drafted and the Vendee original attempts at decentralisation abandoned power centralised

1

Napoleon Bonaparte 1769 - 1821

Family minor Corsican nobility, military schooling and made officer 1785, General in 1796 fought in Italy and Egypt

Coup in 1799 becomes first consul, 1802 consul for life, 1804 Emperor all by plebiscite

1812 disaster in Russia, abdicated 1814, Elba, 1815 Waterloo, defeat St Helena

2

The Napoleonic State , popes, police and tax farmers

Makes peace with Pope, taxes and conscription moderate to begin with

A security (not police) state. Minister of Police, commissaries in all major towns, regular reporting on opinion and crime to centre, prefect of police in Paris, sometimes brutal, political surveillance

Families could request children to be held, gendarmerie patrolled roads anti brigand patrols kept order in countryside - new unspoken and reciprocal agreement between state and people

Monarchist tax farmers replaced with senior receivers relatively fair until 1810 and wars

3

The Napoleonic State II , partible, citizenship born,

Efficient trained bureaucracy, auditeurs of The Council or State, prefects of departments, commissars,

Criminal code all equal, codification project draws up legal structure for life - The Code Napoleon, Civil Code, Commercial Code, Criminal Code

Civil rights, but male heads of families 'more equal' with control of wife's property, double standard of infidelity (Josephine), on death heirs inherit equal portions (partible) - gender equality under old revolution

Any individual born in France right to be a French citizen, creation of lycées boys' schools

4

The Napoleonic State Beyond France, 130, Emperor Francis no

Re arrangement of European States, 130 departments within the Empire, parts of Germany, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and Netherlands + Spain and Kingdom of Italy - much of borders, legal and systems tax inspectorates and gendarmerie maintained after 1815 defeat, Feudalism and church gone

Austria regresses to previous mode under Emperor Francis, nobility and church pandered to, emergence of Prince Clemens von Metternich, a conservative, shrewd diplomat, attempts to keep balance of power

5

The Napoleonic State Beyond France II

Austria survived with little internal reorganisation, Austrian supremacy eventually gives way to Prussia

6

Britain - The constitutional monarchy, gentry, magistrates, 1832

Jonathan Clark - Britain, still an old regime, gentry/aristocratic officers purchased commissions, but Englishman had equality before the law, no feudal work, Britain's fiscal system most efficient in Europe

Government not centralised run by local magistrates a need for parliamentary reform due to pocket boroughs with small/no populations and under representation in cities like Manchester (urbanisation) - result The Reform Act of 1832 eliminates pocket boroughs

7

The Military State, reforming Frederick, Vom Stein, Hardenberg 1816

Prussia becomes MORE German, Prussia's army strong, Vom Stein persuades King Frederick III to push through administrative reforms, civil equality, economic freedom and social mobility Junkers attempt to derail but Hardenberg e.g. Peasant emancipation (freedom) in 1816

Reforms bear fruit in German liberation war - The befreiungskrig regular army plus Landwher (Territorials) 15% of the adult male population- Prussian nobility weary of this stifle reform and maintain with Austria the Deutsche Bund's political stability

8

The View from below, Nation states from departments, bourbons

Out of the Congress of Vienna emerges post Napoleonic 'Nation States' (states built around a supposed single ethnicity on recognised national territory) who came to dominate

1830 the Bourbons overthrown, the House of Orleans King Louise Philip replaces it,

9

Continental Europe, Prussia, Von Lutzow, Hofer, 1808, the spirit of the nation

Frederick William III raises Prussians to war, Britain supplies munitions to Prussian armies in per suit of Napoleon 1813-14, Von Lutzow's volunteers in colours of black, red and gold (replaced later by old imperial colours), Tyrol insurrection by Andreas Hofer 1809

Insurrection to Napoleon in Spain, Madrid rises in 1808,

The bony bunch of roses, England, Ireland and Scotland that defeated Napoleon, William Cobett 1830, radical reformer, if a man is to fight for his country he should have a say on how it is run,

The war against France 'was central in the invention of the British Nation - Linda Colley 1992)