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Flashcards in the Condition of England Deck (16):

E Engles 1845

Modern manufacture

Johanna Schopenhauer 1766-1838

E - The condition of the working class in England from personal observation and authentic sources - worked and lived in England, 'from the great sewer gold flows' - 'The problems are consequences, demoralisation and degeneration. Cotton Lords v hands, death rate highest wages lowest. Remedy -class war, rich v poor

1) the forces of nature, 2) machinery replaces hand labour, 3) division of labour, mechanisation of spinning and weaving

S- Manchester, the famous factory town


Leon Faucher 1805 - 54

LF - journal 'Revue des Deus Mondes' English version published 1844. Manchester 'like a diligent spider' similar to Dickens 'Centre of the web'. 'Puberty is developed before age and education have matured the moral sentiments, the factory girls are strangers to modesty'. 'Febrile energy' - nervous rather than healthy. He gives more emphasis on the role of the workers in their own misery - blames them?

Athenaeum member JP Culverwell publishes Faucher's pamphlet as a way of exposing social problems - error town wages were in fact lower than urban ones and rents/food more expensive too.

Remedy - return to rural factories and paternalistic employers


William Cooke Taylor 1800-49

Asa Briges 1958

WCT - The Forrest of chimneys pouring forth volumes of steam and smoke

AB - Manchester was the shock city of the 1840's


Joseph Adshead 1840-1842

'Distress in Manchester: Evidence (tabular and otherwise) of the state of the labouring classes in 1840-42. Unlike Kay's 'tables only' report contained a chapter 'Narratives of Suffering'

Individual stories that personalised the report

Remedy - more charitable giving




Adam Smith 1723 - 1790 & Robert Malthus 1766 - 1834

C - Masters and factory hands - no paternalism

T - a sense of class identity emerged when groups came to define their interests as 'opposed'

S & M - 'political economy' - support the idea that Market Forces should not be mitigated, the 'hidden hand' -Smith 'laws of Universe' if business slow reduce wages and lay off workers


Thomas Carlyle - 1995 - 1881

The Condition of England - a 'son of the people' opposed to the concept that 'British Manufacturers constantly needed to reduce wages to remain competitive'. Against 'political economy which he thought a 'mechanical philosophy'

Wrote a 'form on denunciation from the margins of society'

He advocated 'Moral leadership by the middle and upper classes'


Tain Hippolyte


TH - 'Notes on England' 1872 - They (the workers) are fond if facts (Gradgrind?). How has England escaped revolution. Justice and fairness at work is an important part of class politics, importance of work to social identity, also print - banners, newspapers, posters etc. For workers justice = wages

Trade Union Congress of 1868 meant that workers were included in politics, Reform Act passed 1867 vote to adult male householders and lodger who paid rent of £10 for a year (unfurnished)

Equipoise achieved by an emphasis on connections between 'the people' shared interests rather than class



Bentham (1748 - 1832) - Human instincts cause us to seek pleasure and avoid pain

Applied to economics - self interest determines our actions and choices, promote the greatest good of the greatest number - applies these methods to social and economic issues

John Stuart Mill 1806-1873 modifies these views - political economy plus the education of the working classes through schemes of social improvement

Civil ethos - parks, libraries, sewage systems, roads , pavements to improve health, well being in towns and shape the character of the working classes and credit unions coop trade associations - inspire hard work, independence, thrift, self regulation - Manchester Town Hall


Patriarchal v Urban

P - The Greg's, rural, Quarry Bank Mill, housing and gardens for work force, hard to keep employees, has to be looked after Engels did not like the Greg's despite the better conditions Greg against trade unions, restrictions on trade and factory acts/ U - Ancoats - spinning can be done anywhere due canals, steam, cheap and poor quality housing, Irish immigrants, urbanism = cheap and available employees who can easily be laid off in fluctuating markets of 1800-1850s



Factory Acts 1833, 1852-1867

c - A movement for the reform of parliament (1830-1840) demanding 1) universe male suffer age, 2) equal electoral districts (no rotten boroughs), 3) a secret ballot, 4) annual elections, 5) no property qualifications for MPs, 6) payment of MPs, 'movement for electoral reform' pre 1832, Anti Corn-Law league 1840s

FA - 1833, set limits re hours for children and young people in textiles, brought in Factory Inspectors. The age of equipoise, debate and discussion, stability between change and turmoil, emergence of a string civil culture & public politics. Shared interests create a sense of community


Slump 1842

The poor

The plug strikes bring factories to a standstill

TP - 'Ardwick a Manchester district knows less about Ancoats than it does about China'


Irish Famin

The Corn Law


IF - = Irish immigrants and depressed wages

CL - Restricted the importation of grain in favour of the landed gentry removing this removed restrictions to trade

A - The working and unworking aristocracy (past and present), worship mammon (wealth as an evil influence)


James Phillip Kay - physician at Ardwick and Ancoats

JPK - combatting cholera Manchester 1831-32. Report - 'The moral and physical condition of the working class employed in the cotton manufacture in Manchester' - 'Poverty and lack of instruction and information leads to disease' for 'The want of good example'. 'They ( the workers) no more choose (the moral and physical disease they suffer) than we choose the flu'. I.e. It's a social contagion'

Remedy - dispel ignorance by giving better examples and moral instruction to the poor


David Ross 1842, chartist and Irish Catholic

'The state of the country as the effect of class legislation and the charter as a remedy'

An argument against Political Economy from a Political Franchise rather than a moral standpoint


The Preston Lockout

Union Leaders - George Cowell and Mortimer Grimshaw (Slackbridge base?)

1848 wage cut by 10%, 1853 restored except by 4 factories in Preston

Lockout, £5,000 bond posted by anti union factory owners

10% And no surrender! Broadsides, posters, cartoons, penny ballads

Strike maintained for months (Feb 1854) blackleg labour brought in - Irish Knobsticks


The Cotton Famine 1861 - 1865

American Civil War, restricts cotton supply, threatens cotton production in towns

But labour and capital united in privations in a bid to support the war against slavary

Men made unemployable by famine, comment on Stallybridge riots aimed at degrading cotton workers but didn't

Gladstone - Self help institutions, libraries, working men's institutes = working men = They are fit to vote

Reynolds Newspaper, popular working class newspaper, socialist leaning