A200 Block 5 Unit 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A200 Block 5 Unit 17 Deck (12):
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Creating Nations end of 18th to last 3rd of 19th, 1776, ancient regime, modern regimes

America 1776 Declaration of Independence

Beginning of the end of the Ancien Regime (old regime old fudelism) French Revolution 1789-99

Old regime make up - Church + State, rural economy, elitist, heredity, privileged nobility of Absolute Monarchy, based on land ownership (3 estates Church, nobility and people - Catholic Church predominant), also a disgruntled bourgeois who resented being unable to attain positions of political power and honour. Poor harvests had resulted in peasantry starving

New regime make up - modernity, industrial economics, mass production in factories, wealth based on industry and commerce NOT land, citizens, all men are equal under this laws - citizens, a middle class bourgeoise

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French Revolution a catalyst for 'The Age of Nationalism', Bastille

New words- capitalism, conservative, factories, industry, liberal, middle class, Revolution, proletariat, strike - The Age of Modernity

The storming of the Bastille 14/7/89, but not one brief skirmish rather a series of prolonged, messy battles over ten years between factions, ideologies and counter Revolution groups



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French Revolution a catalyst for 'The Age of Nationalism' II, rights of man, sovereignty of the people

Declaration of The Rights of Man and of the Citizen, 1789 'Supreme Being'

III 'The principle of sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body of men, no individual can exercise an authority that does not emanate expressly from that source'

Equality, Freedom, Natural Rights, the Sovereignty of The People

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Further Revolutions, Bourbon, 1848, 1832

France 1830 anti Bourbon

Europe wide 1848

In Britain The Regulatory State Emerged, French Revolution triggers radical agitation for political reform in Britain, 1832 The Great Reform Act

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Liberalism in Britain

POLITICAL ECONOMY

Emergence of:-

Political economy - economics as a branch of knowledge or academic discipline

Free Trade

Individual Freedom from government interference

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Political a Economy

Mercantilism is economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. Adam Smith coined the term “mercantile system” to describe the system of political economy that sought to enrich the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports. This system dominated Western European economic thought and policies from the sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries. The goal of these policies was, supposedly, to achieve a “favorable” balance of trade that would bring gold and silver into the country and also to maintain domestic employment. In contrast to the agricultural system of the physiocrats or the laissez-faire of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the mercantile system served the interests of merchants and producers such as the British East India Company, whose activities were protected or encouraged by the state.

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Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto of 1848

HISTORICAL MATERIALISM - economic, technology, class struggle

Historical Materialism - the idea that the form of human societies can be explained by economic and technological development and the concomitant issue of class struggle as the motor force of history

Before everything else came the economic struggle for survival and this was always a class struggle

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State Formation

Nation States v National Identities

Nation States - Physical and Geographical Space, Nation = imaginary, a concept, citizenship, language, culture, religion, race

Not the same as

National identities social and political - a 'people' who generally but not always inhabit such a state

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Romanticism 1780 - 1830

Promoted 'feeling' over reason, wild nature over a tamed and controlled landscape, focused on spirituality, imagination and emotional intensity

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French Revolution's Stages (1) - 1786 monarchy bankrupt partly due to financing US Revolution of 1776, reforms essential

1787 Calling of the Noteables, who reject reform arguing that it will only be legitimate via Estates General

1788 disastrous harvest,





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French Revolution's Stages (2)

1789 bread riots in Paris

1789 election of the Estates General divisions emerge as third (peasant) estates would in theory have most votes, National Assembly

1789 National Constituent Assembly reforms - abolishing feudalism and noble privilege, reducing the role of The Church, reorganising church and the law and increasing the franchise, is locked out and meets in tennis court, storming of the Bastille for weapons as fear of King's army rises

1792 violence rebellion by counter-revolutionaries and hereditary rulers results in war until 1815

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French Revolution Stages - Revolutionary Factions

Factions Girondins anti Paris movement (Bordeaux area of River Gironde) and Montagnards, king Louis XVI executed 1793, Reign of Terror 1793-94 led by Maximilian Robespierre 1758-94 thousands killed, along with Robespierre in 1794

Themidorian Reaction (the name of the month) Girondins back in power ends terror Directory emerges attempts conservative constitution but thwarted by war and counter Revolution

Revolution ends when Napoleon in 1799 stages a coup d'état and is appointed First Consul