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Flashcards in Abdominal Wall Deck (22)
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Name the five components of the body wall from outside inward.

Skin, cutaneous trunci, superficial fascia, deep fascia/muscle, peritoneum


What are abdominal muscles covered in?

Deep fascia


How can muscles be attached to bone?

Tendons, aponeurosis


Where does the linea alba run to?

From the sternum to the pelvic bone


How does the rectus abdominus muscle lay?

From sternum to pelvic bone with tendenous transverse insertions, fibers run cranio-caudally


What three pairs of muscles make up the lateral abdominal wall?

External abdominal oblique, Internal abdominal oblique, transverse abdominus


Describe the external abdominal oblique muscle.

Runs caudo-ventral, inserts to linea alba via aponeurosis, most superficial of the lateral abdominal muscles


Describe the internal abdominal oblique muscle.

Runds cranio-ventral, inserts to linea alba and caudal ribs via aponeurosis, middle muscle of the three lateral abdominal wall muscles


Describe the transverse abdominus muscle.

Runs dorso-ventral, inserts at linea alba, only present in cranial/mid portions of abdomen


How do each of the muscle layers of the lateral abdominal wall pass by the rectus abdominus muscle?

External ab. ob.: Superficial, most ventral
Internal ab. ob.: Starts cranially surrounding the rectus abdominus, around umbilicus moves to just superficial
Transverse ab.: Deep to rectus abdominus then switches to superficial, then disappears


What do the aponeuroses of the lateral abdominal muscles form around the rectus abdominus muscle?

Rectus sheath


Where is the superficial inguinal ring located?

In the external abdominal oblique muscle


Where is the deep inguinal ring located?

In the internal abdominal oblique muscle


What is the name of the peritoneum that is dragged between the superficial and deep inguinal rings?

Vaginal tunic


What two vessels/nerve are included in the canine inguinal canal?

External pudendal vein/artery, genitofemoral nerve


What is included in the male and female inguinal canal?

Male: Testes, spermatic cord, blood supply, cremaster muscle
Female: Vaginal process (Rudimentary structures and fat)


Which four blood vessels supply the deep abdominal wall with blood?

Cranial epigastric artery, caudal epigastric artery, cranial abdominal artery, deep circumflex iliac artery


Which two blood vessels supply the superficial abdominal wall with blood?

Cranial superficial epigastric artery, caudal superficial epigastric artery


In what surgical circumstances is a ventral midline approach used and which layers will be cut through?

Bitch spay, horse colic surgery, always under general anesthetic, skin, superficial fascia, tunica flava abdominus in large animals, linea alba, peritoneum


In what surgical circumstances is a lateral approach used and which layers will be cut through?

Cat spay, cow for c-section or displaced abomasum, skin, cutaneous trunci, superficial fascia, tunica flava abdominus in large animals, muscle (EAO, IAO, TA), peritoneum


How is local anesthesia administered to cows?

In an inverted L through all muscle layers to reach all caudo-ventral nerves


How is paravertebral anesthesia administered to cows?

Walk the needle off the cranial aspect of the transverse process, then inject into intertransverse ligament