Flashcards in Carnivore Head Anatomy Deck (45):
What types of bones is the skull made of?
What is the skull comprised of?
Skull, mandible, hyoid apparatus, middle ear ossicles, external cartilages
Which bones hold the majority of the teeth?
What part of the mandible changes depending on a species' diet?
Which part of the mandible interacts with the top part of the skull?
Which part of the mandible is not present in herbivores?
In what type of animals does the symphysis remain cartilaginous?
Name the three types of dog skull and give an example of each.
Dolichocephalic (Greyhound), Mesaticephalic (Labrador), Brachycephalic (Pug or bulldog)
What is characteristic about the feline skull?
It has a shorter maxillary region
What does TMJ stand for?
What interaction creates the TMJ?
Mandibular fossa and the retroarticular process
Does the TMJ exist in carnivores?
Yes, but poorly developed
How is the TMJ imaged?
Can use CT scan or MRI, radiographs less useful
What five components make up the hyoid apparatus?
Stylohyoid, epihyoid, ceratohyoid, basihyoid, thyrohyoid
Mnemonic: Some Elephants Came By Train
Which component of the hyoid apparatus is not paired?
Name the boundaries of the mouth.
Lips, cheeks, commissure, buccal cavity (Between cheeks and teeth), vestibule (Between lips and teeth)
What is unique about the mouth of ruminants?
Have a nasolabial plate
What is unique about carnivore/small ruminant noses?
Upper lip can have median groove
How are the superficial muscles of the face innervated?
Facial nerve (VII)
How are the deep tissues of the face innervated?
Infraorbital nerve (V)
Which four muscles operate the closing of the mouth?
Temporalis, masseter, pterygoideus medialis, pterygoideus lateralis
Which muscle opens the mouth?
What does the infraorbital nerve provide feeling for?
How does the external jugular vein branch into the face?
Maxillary vein to maxilla, linguofacial vein directly off of jugular, facial vein farther down into the mandibular
What are the two components of the pharynx?
The oropharynx and the laryngopharynx (Along with nasopharynx)
What three components make up the hard palate?
Palatine bone, maxilla, and incisive bone
What is the incisive papilla?
A projection of the hard palate between and caudal to the incisors which includes sensory ducts that pick up pheromones
Name the three types of papilla that can be found on the tongue.
Filiform/coniform (Soft, protective), conical (Cat), fungiform/foliate/vallate (Taste)
Where does the root of the tongue anchor?
To the basihyoid bone
In what two ways is the tongue attached to the mouth?
Palatoglossal folds on either side of the tongue, and a frenulum
What is found underneath the tongue that are important for salivation?
Between the hyoglossus and the styloglossus, which muscle pulls the tongue back and which pulls the tongue back and up?
Hyoglossus pulls tongue back, styloglossus pulls tongue back and up
How is the rostral 2/3 of the tongue innervated for taste and sensation?
Taste: Chorda tympani from facial nerve
Sensation: Lingual branch of mandibular nerve
How is the root of the tongue innervated for taste and sensation?
Glossopharyngeal and vegus nerves for both
How is motion innervated in the tongue?
What blood supply runs to the tongue?
Lingual artery, sublingual veins drain through lingual veins
How is the soft palate attached to the head?
Palatoglossal arches, palatopharyngeal arches
How are tonsils different between horses and carnivores/ruminants?
Diffuse in horses, compact masses in carnivores/ruminants
What is the role of amylase and where is it found?
Carbohydrate digestion in the saliva
Name four major salivary glands.
Parotid, sublingual, mandibular, zygomatic (Buccal in herbivores)
Name a defining characteristic of the parotid salivary gland.
What is distinctive about the mandibular salivary gland?
It is ovoid in shape and is surrounded by a fibrous capsule
What is unique about the sublingual salivary gland?
Can be compact and monostomatic or diffuse and polystomatic
Where does the zygomatic salivary gland open into the mouth?
The last maxillary cheek tooth