Carnivore Head Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Carnivore Head Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carnivore Head Anatomy Deck (45):
1

What types of bones is the skull made of?

Flat bones

2

What is the skull comprised of?

Skull, mandible, hyoid apparatus, middle ear ossicles, external cartilages

3

Which bones hold the majority of the teeth?

Incisive, maxilla

4

What part of the mandible changes depending on a species' diet?

Coronoid process

5

Which part of the mandible interacts with the top part of the skull?

Condylar process

6

Which part of the mandible is not present in herbivores?

Angular process

7

In what type of animals does the symphysis remain cartilaginous?

Carnivores

8

Name the three types of dog skull and give an example of each.

Dolichocephalic (Greyhound), Mesaticephalic (Labrador), Brachycephalic (Pug or bulldog)

9

What is characteristic about the feline skull?

It has a shorter maxillary region

10

What does TMJ stand for?

Temporomandibular joint

11

What interaction creates the TMJ?

Mandibular fossa and the retroarticular process

12

Does the TMJ exist in carnivores?

Yes, but poorly developed

13

How is the TMJ imaged?

Can use CT scan or MRI, radiographs less useful

14

What five components make up the hyoid apparatus?

Stylohyoid, epihyoid, ceratohyoid, basihyoid, thyrohyoid

Mnemonic: Some Elephants Came By Train

15

Which component of the hyoid apparatus is not paired?

Basihyoid

16

Name the boundaries of the mouth.

Lips, cheeks, commissure, buccal cavity (Between cheeks and teeth), vestibule (Between lips and teeth)

17

What is unique about the mouth of ruminants?

Have a nasolabial plate

18

What is unique about carnivore/small ruminant noses?

Upper lip can have median groove

19

How are the superficial muscles of the face innervated?

Facial nerve (VII)

20

How are the deep tissues of the face innervated?

Infraorbital nerve (V)

21

Which four muscles operate the closing of the mouth?

Temporalis, masseter, pterygoideus medialis, pterygoideus lateralis

22

Which muscle opens the mouth?

Digastricus

23

What does the infraorbital nerve provide feeling for?

Nose, eyes

24

How does the external jugular vein branch into the face?

Maxillary vein to maxilla, linguofacial vein directly off of jugular, facial vein farther down into the mandibular

25

What are the two components of the pharynx?

The oropharynx and the laryngopharynx (Along with nasopharynx)

26

What three components make up the hard palate?

Palatine bone, maxilla, and incisive bone

27

What is the incisive papilla?

A projection of the hard palate between and caudal to the incisors which includes sensory ducts that pick up pheromones

28

Name the three types of papilla that can be found on the tongue.

Filiform/coniform (Soft, protective), conical (Cat), fungiform/foliate/vallate (Taste)

29

Where does the root of the tongue anchor?

To the basihyoid bone

30

In what two ways is the tongue attached to the mouth?

Palatoglossal folds on either side of the tongue, and a frenulum

31

What is found underneath the tongue that are important for salivation?

Sublingual caruncles

32

Between the hyoglossus and the styloglossus, which muscle pulls the tongue back and which pulls the tongue back and up?

Hyoglossus pulls tongue back, styloglossus pulls tongue back and up

33

How is the rostral 2/3 of the tongue innervated for taste and sensation?

Taste: Chorda tympani from facial nerve
Sensation: Lingual branch of mandibular nerve

34

How is the root of the tongue innervated for taste and sensation?

Glossopharyngeal and vegus nerves for both

35

How is motion innervated in the tongue?

Hypoglossal nerve

36

What blood supply runs to the tongue?

Lingual artery, sublingual veins drain through lingual veins

37

How is the soft palate attached to the head?

Palatoglossal arches, palatopharyngeal arches

38

How are tonsils different between horses and carnivores/ruminants?

Diffuse in horses, compact masses in carnivores/ruminants

39

What is the role of amylase and where is it found?

Carbohydrate digestion in the saliva

40

Name four major salivary glands.

Parotid, sublingual, mandibular, zygomatic (Buccal in herbivores)

41

Name a defining characteristic of the parotid salivary gland.

Triangular shaped

42

What is distinctive about the mandibular salivary gland?

It is ovoid in shape and is surrounded by a fibrous capsule

43

What is unique about the sublingual salivary gland?

Can be compact and monostomatic or diffuse and polystomatic

44

Where does the zygomatic salivary gland open into the mouth?

The last maxillary cheek tooth

45

Does saliva production increase or decrease in response to sympathetic stimulation?

Decrease