Body Fluids Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Body Fluids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Fluids Deck (33):
1

What are three modes of transport for fluid between body compartments?

Diffusion, active transport, bulk flow

2

How can diffusion occur?

Through the membrane bilayer, through pores/channels, or through facilitated diffusion

3

What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?

Primary active transport uses ATP as an energy source, secondary active transport uses a different energy source than ATP

4

What are three unique qualities about active transport?

Require energy, create a gradient, only move in one direction (Bringing something in OR taking something out)

5

What is bulk flow?

When movement of water across a membrane takes other substances with it

6

What is the Donnan Effect?

Where the presence of large, non-permeable molecules affect the distribution of permeable solutes. The main effect in blood pressure

7

What is osmosis?

Diffusion of water down its concentration gradient

8

How many Moles of solute are present in 1 L of water if the osmolarity is 1 osmole?

1 Mole of solute

9

If osmolarity is high, what does that mean in terms of water?

High osmolarity indicates high solute or low water

10

What is the difference between osmolarity and osmolality?

Osmolarity is an indicator of concentration, whereas osmolality is an indicator of weight

11

How is osmolality calculated?

Number of solute particles per Kg of solution

12

What is tonicity?

The osmotic gradient set up over a permeable membrane and non-permeable solutes

13

What is isotonicity in terms of osmolarity?

No net water flow as the concentrations of non-permeable solute in both solutions is equal

14

What term would be used to describe a solution with a HIGH concentration of non-permeable solutes and LOW amount of water?

Hyperosmotic

15

What term would be used to describe a solution with a LOW concentration of non-permeable solutes and a HIGH amount of water?

Hyposmotic

16

How will water flow if both a hypertonic and hypotonic solution are present?

From hypotonic to hypertonic

17

What proportion of water is found in intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid?

2/3 intracellular, 1/3 extracellular

18

What are the four forces that make up Starlings Forces?

Capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pressure generated by heart pumping blood through veins), interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pressure of the fluid moving into the vessels), osmotic pressure due to interstitial fluid protein (Pressure of water exiting cell to dilute non-permeable proteins outside the vessel), and oncotic pressure (Pressure due to plasma protein)

19

How are net filtration and absorption calculated?

(Amount of hydrostatic pressure) - (Amount of protein-induced pressure)

20

How much fluid is required for patients per day (General rule of thumb)?

50 mL/Kg/day, 2 mL/Kg/hour

21

How much fluid is required for cats/small dogs per day?

60 mL/Kg/day

22

How much fluid is required for medium dogs per day?

50 mL/Kg/day

23

How much fluid is required for large dogs per day?

40 mL/Kg/day

24

How is the amount of fluid needed for a patient calculated using a comprehensive plan?

Estimate % dehydration using clinical signs (Deficit), add maintenance fluid per day, add ongoing losses (Vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) and divide by 24 to get hourly rate

25

When administering fluids, when should a patient be back to normal hydration?

After 24 hours

26

How are drops per minute calculated from mLs per hour?

[Fluid per hour (mL/hr) x Drip rate (Adult or pediatric)]/60 minutes

27

What percent dehydration is characterized by a subtle loss in skin elasticity?

5-6%

28

What percent dehydration is characterized by definite loss in skin elasticity, possible sunken eyes, and possible tacky mucus membranes?

6-10%

29

What percent dehydration is characterized by skin tent standing in place, definite sunken eyes, and definite tacky/dry mucus membranes?

10-12%

30

What percent dehydration is characterized by collapse and possible death?

12-15%

31

How much crystalloid solution is given to patients in hypovolemic shock?

80-90 mL/Kg/hr in dogs, 40-60 mL/Kg/hr in cats

32

How much colloid solution is given to patients in hypovolemic shock?

5-20 mL/Kg/hr in dogs, 5-15 mL/Kg/hr in cats

33

How are crystalloid and colloid solutions administered to a patient in hypovolemic shock?

1/4 of total dose given in 15 minutes, then reevaluated