Flashcards in Body Fluids Deck (33):
What are three modes of transport for fluid between body compartments?
Diffusion, active transport, bulk flow
How can diffusion occur?
Through the membrane bilayer, through pores/channels, or through facilitated diffusion
What is the difference between primary and secondary active transport?
Primary active transport uses ATP as an energy source, secondary active transport uses a different energy source than ATP
What are three unique qualities about active transport?
Require energy, create a gradient, only move in one direction (Bringing something in OR taking something out)
What is bulk flow?
When movement of water across a membrane takes other substances with it
What is the Donnan Effect?
Where the presence of large, non-permeable molecules affect the distribution of permeable solutes. The main effect in blood pressure
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water down its concentration gradient
How many Moles of solute are present in 1 L of water if the osmolarity is 1 osmole?
1 Mole of solute
If osmolarity is high, what does that mean in terms of water?
High osmolarity indicates high solute or low water
What is the difference between osmolarity and osmolality?
Osmolarity is an indicator of concentration, whereas osmolality is an indicator of weight
How is osmolality calculated?
Number of solute particles per Kg of solution
What is tonicity?
The osmotic gradient set up over a permeable membrane and non-permeable solutes
What is isotonicity in terms of osmolarity?
No net water flow as the concentrations of non-permeable solute in both solutions is equal
What term would be used to describe a solution with a HIGH concentration of non-permeable solutes and LOW amount of water?
What term would be used to describe a solution with a LOW concentration of non-permeable solutes and a HIGH amount of water?
How will water flow if both a hypertonic and hypotonic solution are present?
From hypotonic to hypertonic
What proportion of water is found in intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid?
2/3 intracellular, 1/3 extracellular
What are the four forces that make up Starlings Forces?
Capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pressure generated by heart pumping blood through veins), interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Pressure of the fluid moving into the vessels), osmotic pressure due to interstitial fluid protein (Pressure of water exiting cell to dilute non-permeable proteins outside the vessel), and oncotic pressure (Pressure due to plasma protein)
How are net filtration and absorption calculated?
(Amount of hydrostatic pressure) - (Amount of protein-induced pressure)
How much fluid is required for patients per day (General rule of thumb)?
50 mL/Kg/day, 2 mL/Kg/hour
How much fluid is required for cats/small dogs per day?
How much fluid is required for medium dogs per day?
How much fluid is required for large dogs per day?
How is the amount of fluid needed for a patient calculated using a comprehensive plan?
Estimate % dehydration using clinical signs (Deficit), add maintenance fluid per day, add ongoing losses (Vomiting, diarrhea, etc.) and divide by 24 to get hourly rate
When administering fluids, when should a patient be back to normal hydration?
After 24 hours
How are drops per minute calculated from mLs per hour?
[Fluid per hour (mL/hr) x Drip rate (Adult or pediatric)]/60 minutes
What percent dehydration is characterized by a subtle loss in skin elasticity?
What percent dehydration is characterized by definite loss in skin elasticity, possible sunken eyes, and possible tacky mucus membranes?
What percent dehydration is characterized by skin tent standing in place, definite sunken eyes, and definite tacky/dry mucus membranes?
What percent dehydration is characterized by collapse and possible death?
How much crystalloid solution is given to patients in hypovolemic shock?
80-90 mL/Kg/hr in dogs, 40-60 mL/Kg/hr in cats
How much colloid solution is given to patients in hypovolemic shock?
5-20 mL/Kg/hr in dogs, 5-15 mL/Kg/hr in cats