Flashcards in Immunology Deck (113)
What are the three branches of immune response?
Innate, intrinsic, adaptive
What is unique about adaptive immunity?
Provides memory and specificity
What is superoxide?
O2-, incredibly reactive, destroys lipid
What does superoxide dismutase do?
Turns reactive material into water
Is respiratory burst an oxygen-dependent action?
What types of cells/materials carry out oxygen-independent killing?
Low molecular weight defensins, cathepsin G, lysozyme, lactoferrin, proteolytic and/or hydrolytic enzymes
What is the purpose of C3B in the complement cascade?
Binds to invader so the system can "see" it
What is the purpose of C3A in the complement cascade?
What is DAF and what does it do?
Decay accelerating factor, prevents continuation of complement cascade (Useful in transplantation)
What does antigen presentation cause the expansion of?
B cells producing antigen-specific antibody, and cytotoxic T cells that can lyse infected cells
How is specificity brought to the immune system?
How does the time for IgM and IgG responses differ between an initial infection and a secondary infection?
IgM quick to respond in first infection as IgG creates specific antibodies, in second infection IgG is first to respond with cells that remember the initial infection
Why is TRIM5alpha special to intrinsic immunity?
Resistant to HIV, recognizes all viruses in a family and destroys the virus as soon as it enters a cell
What parts of an immunoglobulin make up the antigen binding site?
Light and heavy chains
Why is a constant domain important in an immunoglobulin?
So that the body can recognize it as "self"
In terms of an immunoglobulin, what do V, D, and J stand for?
Variable region, diversity, joint region
How are the heavy and light chains connected to each other?
What do the FAB region and Fc region stand for?
Fragment antigen binding, Fragment crystallizable or Fragment constant
What are the three types of antibody variation?
Idiotypic (Change in antigen-binding site), allotypic (Change in AA sequence of heavy or light chain, inherited), isotypic (Change in light/heavy chain classification)
What are the possible types of light chains in antibodies?
Kappa or lambda
What are the possible types of heavy chains in antibodies?
Mu, Alpha, Delta, Gamma, Epsilon
What is the name of the site where antigens bind to anibodies, and which type of of site is more effective (Linear or conformational)?
Epitope, conformational (Normally live attenuated vaccines)
Name some features of IgG.
Secondary response to antigen, binds Fc region, neutralizes antigen and fixes complement (Signals for phagocytosis), high affinity due to affinity maturation
What three antibodies are transferred to offspring through colostrum?
IgG (Most), IgA (Intermediate), and IgM (Least)
Name some features of IgM.
Most primitive antibody, first responder to invasion, pentameric, low affinity but high avidity, neutralizes antigen and fixes complement
Name some features of IgA.
Most abundant in the body, can be dimeric or trimeric, heavy glycosylated hinge region, found in mucosal epithelium, has a secretory component, must be able to resist proteolytic degradation
Name some features of IgE.
Triggers histamine release (Regulate allergic responses) and mast cell degranulation, are present on the surface of mast cells, coats parasites and causes basophils/eosinophils to burst on parasite
Name some features of IgY.
Found in water birds (And a few other species), descendant of IgG and IgE, has no Fc region (Thought to cut down on allergies)
How does IgG differ in camelids?
Many only have a heavy chain which helps the molecule fit in tighter areas