Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (14)
What are three responses to cell stress?
Adaption, reversible injury, irreversible injury/cell death
How can a cell adapt to stress?
Increase cellular activity, decrease cellular activity, or alter cell type/position
What is the difference between labile, stable, and permanent cells?
Labile: Continuously dividing
Stable: Quiescent, can divide if needed
Permanent: Only develop in fetal life, damage is repaired but not replaced (Scarring)
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in cell/organ size to account for increased workload of permanent cells
What is the limiting factor of hypertrophy?
Nutrient/vascular supply through oxidative phosphorylation
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in cell numbers due to hormones/growth signals, can only occur in labile/stable cells
What is the name of hyperplasia that can cause pyometra in females?
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
What are ischemia, hypoxia, and anoxia?
Ischemia: Lack of blood supply
Hypoxia: Decreased oxygen supply
Anoxia: Lack of oxygen supply
What can atrophy cause due to altered hormonal stimulation or apoptosis of individual cells?
What is meant by "acini?"
A circular structure lined by epithelial cells that secrete a substance
What can cause pathological atrophy?
Disuse, gradual/continuous injury, inadequate nutrient supply, decreased workload, denervation, pressure, loss of endocrine stimulation
What is cachexia?
Wasting of muscle tissue, weight loss, fatigue, weakness
What is emaciation?
Loss of muscle bulk due to starvation