Liver and Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Liver and Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver and Pancreas Deck (30):
1

What are the main functions of the liver?

Detoxification of metabolic waste and drugs/toxins, destruction of RBCs and sorting out remains, synthesizes and secretes bile, synthesizes plasma proteins and lipoproteins, metabolic functions

2

What's the strongest attachment of the liver?

Left and right triangular ligaments to the diaphragm

3

What tissue covers the liver?

Peritoneum

4

What tissue enters the liver at the hilus and follows the vessels throughout the liver?

Tunica fibrosa

5

What supplies the liver with blood?

Hepatic artery and portal vein

6

What is the name of the functional unit of the liver?

Hepatic lobules

7

How does blood flow through each hepatic lobule?

Flows up through branches of hepatic artery and portal vein supplied to the corners of each lobule, then flows through lobule to the terminal hepatic venule located in the center of each lobule

8

Where are hepatic sinusoids located?

Between rows of hepatocytes, a form of capillary

9

What creates bile in the liver?

Hepatocytes in lobules

10

How is bile moved throughout the liver?

In lobules it flows opposite blood, produced in hepatocytes and then moved to the lobule periphery to the triad which contains branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile ductiles

11

What do hepatocytes do?

Produce bile, store carbohydrates as glycogen, produce proteins, and temporarily store lipid

12

What causes fatty liver?

The permanent loss of liver tissue which can be accompanied by scar tissue or cirrhosis

13

What cells line the sinusoids of each lobule?

Discontinuous simple squamous endothelium

14

What are Kupffer cells?

Phagocytic cells that sit on hepatocytes and protrude into sinusoids and engulf particulate matter, resident cells

15

How are Kupffer cells spaced away from hepatocytes?

Space of Disse

16

What do hepatic stellate cells do?

Store vitamin A and produce extracellular matrix/collagen

17

Where is the gall bladder located in the liver?

Between the quadrate and right medial lobes

18

What types of cells are found in bile canaliculi?

Walls formed from adjacent hepatocytes

19

What types of cells are found in bile ductules?

Simple cuboidal

20

What types of cells are found in small ducts?

Simple cuboidal to simple columnar

21

What types of cells are found in large ducts?

Simple columnar

22

What types of cells are found in the terminal bile duct?

Stratified columnar

23

What is the gallbladder?

A muscular sac that stores bile until it is needed by the small intestines to emulsify fat

24

Which species don't have gallbladders?

Horses and rats

25

What stimulates the gallbladder to contract?

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released by endothelial cells when they are stimulated by the presence of lipid, CCK then signals the gallbladder to contract

26

What is seen histologically of the gallbladder?

Mucosal folds without villi, submucosa with vessels, lymphatics, and elastic fibers, fibers of muscle running in all directions

27

How is the pancreas an exocrine and an endocrine gland?

Exocrine: Secretes alkaline substances and inactive digestive enzymes into duodenum
Endocrine: Islet cells produce hormones such as insulin and glucagon

28

How is the pancreas oriented in the body?

Left limb stretches from middle of stomach to the right side of the abdomen, right limb descends caudally along with descending duodenum

29

What is the difference between the pancreatic duct and the accessory pancreatic duct?

Pancreatic duct: Smaller, enters around pylorus along with bile duct at major duodenal papilla, may be absent
Accessory: Larger, enters a little farther along the duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla

30

What are Islets of Langerhans?

Endocrine tissue (Lighter staining) scattered throughout the pancreas