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Anatomy and Physiology > Red Blood Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Red Blood Cells Deck (71)
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1

What can regulate temperature, ICF water concentration, electrolyte concentration, and acid base balance?

Blood

2

What substance makes up the vast majority of plasma?

Water

3

Where are albumin and fibrinogen produced?

The liver

4

Where are blood cells produced in the fetus?

Bone marrow (Of all bones), liver, spleen

5

Where are blood cells produced in young animals?

Bone marrow (Of all bones)

6

Where are blood cells produced in adult animals?

Bone marrow of long bones (Red marrow)

7

What type of cell can lymphoid stem cells produce?

Lymphocyte

8

What type of cells can myeloid stem cells produce?

Erythrocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and megakaryocyte (Then turns into platelets)

9

What are the main functions of erythrocytes?

Provide O2 to tissues via hemoglobin and remove CO2 from tissues (As carbonic acid or carbamino acids)

10

What percentage of marrow cells make RBCs?

25%

11

What is the hemoglobin content of most mammals (Excluding lactating cows and cold blooded horses)?

13-15 g/dl

12

What is the name of the complex formed when CO binds to hemoglobin?

Carbonmonoxyhemoglobin

13

How can the production of methemoglobin be reversed?

With NADH and methemoglobin reductase

14

Why does fetal Hb have a higher affinity for O2 than adult Hb?

To promote maternal-fetal O2 transfer

15

What proportion of erythrocytes are in peripheral circulation?

Less than half

16

What proportion of non-circulating erythrocytes are stored in the spleen?

1/3

17

How are erythrocytes removed from circulation?

Intravascular hemolysis (Aged cells lyse, Hb dimerizes and binds to haptoglobin, digested by mononuclear phagocytic or macrophage system (MPS)) or extravascular hemolysis (Directly engulfed by MPS)

18

Where is the mononuclear phagocytic or macrophage system (MPS) located?

Domestic animals: Red bone marrow, humans: Spleen, birds and some other species: Liver

19

What are the requirements for erythropoiesis?

Lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, iron (Hb production), folic acid (DNA/RNA synthesis), and Vitamin B12 (DNA production/maturation of erythrocytes)

20

How is erythropoiesis regulated?

Erythropoietin: Stimulated when decreased O2 to kidney, then stimulates RBC production in bone marrow

21

What is MCV and how is it calculated?

Mean Corpuscular Volume: (PCV x 10)/# erythrocytes per ul x 10-6

22

What is MCH and how is it calculated?

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin content: (Hb in g/dl x 10)/# erythrocytes per ul x 10-6

23

What is MCHC and how is it calculated?

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration: (Hb in g/dl x 100)/(PCV in dl/dl)

24

What are three types of anemia?

Hemolytic, hemorrhagic, hypoproliferative (Non-regenerative)

25

How does hemorrhagic anemia occur and what are some causes?

Blood loss due to trauma, coagulation disorders, parasites, or GI lesions

26

How does hypoproliferative (Non-regenerative) anemia occur and what are some causes?

Decrease in erythropoietin due to dietary deficiencies (Folic acid, vit. B12, iron), desetruction of bone marrow, or bracken poisoning

27

How does hemolytic anemia occur and what are some causes?

Destruction of erythrocytes due to blood parasites, bacterial infection, chemicals, drugs, poisonous plants/venoms, or autoimmune disorders

28

Which blood type is considered the universal donor?

O

29

Which blood type can only receive its own blood type?

O

30

Which blood type are the majority of non-pedigree cats?

A