Flashcards in Red Blood Cells Deck (71)
What can regulate temperature, ICF water concentration, electrolyte concentration, and acid base balance?
What substance makes up the vast majority of plasma?
Where are albumin and fibrinogen produced?
Where are blood cells produced in the fetus?
Bone marrow (Of all bones), liver, spleen
Where are blood cells produced in young animals?
Bone marrow (Of all bones)
Where are blood cells produced in adult animals?
Bone marrow of long bones (Red marrow)
What type of cell can lymphoid stem cells produce?
What type of cells can myeloid stem cells produce?
Erythrocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and megakaryocyte (Then turns into platelets)
What are the main functions of erythrocytes?
Provide O2 to tissues via hemoglobin and remove CO2 from tissues (As carbonic acid or carbamino acids)
What percentage of marrow cells make RBCs?
What is the hemoglobin content of most mammals (Excluding lactating cows and cold blooded horses)?
What is the name of the complex formed when CO binds to hemoglobin?
How can the production of methemoglobin be reversed?
With NADH and methemoglobin reductase
Why does fetal Hb have a higher affinity for O2 than adult Hb?
To promote maternal-fetal O2 transfer
What proportion of erythrocytes are in peripheral circulation?
Less than half
What proportion of non-circulating erythrocytes are stored in the spleen?
How are erythrocytes removed from circulation?
Intravascular hemolysis (Aged cells lyse, Hb dimerizes and binds to haptoglobin, digested by mononuclear phagocytic or macrophage system (MPS)) or extravascular hemolysis (Directly engulfed by MPS)
Where is the mononuclear phagocytic or macrophage system (MPS) located?
Domestic animals: Red bone marrow, humans: Spleen, birds and some other species: Liver
What are the requirements for erythropoiesis?
Lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, iron (Hb production), folic acid (DNA/RNA synthesis), and Vitamin B12 (DNA production/maturation of erythrocytes)
How is erythropoiesis regulated?
Erythropoietin: Stimulated when decreased O2 to kidney, then stimulates RBC production in bone marrow
What is MCV and how is it calculated?
Mean Corpuscular Volume: (PCV x 10)/# erythrocytes per ul x 10-6
What is MCH and how is it calculated?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin content: (Hb in g/dl x 10)/# erythrocytes per ul x 10-6
What is MCHC and how is it calculated?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration: (Hb in g/dl x 100)/(PCV in dl/dl)
What are three types of anemia?
Hemolytic, hemorrhagic, hypoproliferative (Non-regenerative)
How does hemorrhagic anemia occur and what are some causes?
Blood loss due to trauma, coagulation disorders, parasites, or GI lesions
How does hypoproliferative (Non-regenerative) anemia occur and what are some causes?
Decrease in erythropoietin due to dietary deficiencies (Folic acid, vit. B12, iron), desetruction of bone marrow, or bracken poisoning
How does hemolytic anemia occur and what are some causes?
Destruction of erythrocytes due to blood parasites, bacterial infection, chemicals, drugs, poisonous plants/venoms, or autoimmune disorders
Which blood type is considered the universal donor?
Which blood type can only receive its own blood type?