letters & numbers are interspersed to identify an item. The mnemonic code is derived from the description of the item & is usually easy to memorise
Guidelines that result in a better coding system?
- be consistent with its intended use, which requires that a code designer determine desired system outputs prior to selecting the code - allow for growth - be as simple as possible to minimise costs, facilitate memorisation & interpretation, & ensure employee acceptance - be consistent with a company's organisational structure & across a company's divisions
Chart of accounts
a list of numbers assigned to each general ledger account. - a great example of coding
used to record infrequent or non-routine transactions, such as loan patents & end-of-period adjusting & closing entries
records large numbers of repetitive transactions such as sales, cash receipts & cash payments
a traceable path of a transaction through a data processing system from point of origin to final output, or backwards from final output to point of origin.
something about which data is stored, such as employees, inventory items & customers
each entity has attributes or characteristics of interest, that are stored, such as pay rate & address. Each type of entity possess the same set of attributes.
computers store data in a field
Specification for values of data elements comprising a database , prescribed to ensure data consistency. Is a field within a record.
a group of related records
like a ledger in a manual AIS, stores cumulative data about an organisation. Inventory & equipment master files store data about important organisational resources. Customer, supplier & employee master files store data about important agents with whom an organisation interacts. Permanent; they exist across fiscal or accounting periods. Individual master file records may change frequently
contains records of individual business transactions that occur during a specific time. Not permanent & may not be needed beyond the fiscal period. They are usually maintained for a specified period for backup purposes, as well as for audit & tax investigations.
a set of interrelated, centrally coordinated files
Four different types of data processing activities?
CRUD: Creating Reading Updating Deleting
1) Creating new data records 2) Reading, retrieving or viewing existing data 3) Updating previously stored data 4) Deleting data
updating done periodically, such as daily
Online processing / realtime processing
most companies update each transaction as it occurs. It ensures that stored data in master files are always current, thereby increasing it's decision-making usefulness. It is also more accurate because data input errors can be corrected in real time or refused.
Information is usually presented in one of the three forms?
- document - report - query response
records of transaction or other company data