Flashcards in Access Control - Blue Book Chapter 8 Deck (24):
Why is mechanical access control considered the least secure form of access control?
Loss or illegitimate use of a key or combination compromises the entire security of whole locking scheme; keys can be lost or duplicated.
How can something as simple as a lost key cost a company a lot of money?
Multiple locks may need to be replaced or re-keyed; keys can be given out to thieves.
How is electronic access control different from mechanical access control?
Limits access to an area, equipment or information based on an electronic credential and/or code.
What is the main difference between the two control panel types?
1. Stand alone process into locally.
2. Network - process into locally; shares data with other control units or with central processing units.
What are the two most common communication methods of networked control panels?
RS485 and Ethernet
Describe the operation on a distributed intelligence system.
Multiple local control units connected to a central control unit; local control units store at least some user and transactional data, units make access decisions locally without assistance from central control units or PC; can run in standby mode.
Most card readers communicate with the control panel over what type cable?
5 - 8 conductor shielded cable; 500' maximum run.
Typically, what is the maximum length for a reader cable?
a. Mag Stripe
a. Mag Stripe - 500 ft
b. Proximity - 500 ft
What card format is considered to be the industry standard and what are the two types of card/reader data formatting?
Wiegand 26 bit
1. Pass through data reader
2. Matched data reader
What are site codes?
A set of prefix number to a card's data information (bit code)
What are the four methods for reading access control cards?
1. Swipe - card is swiped
2. Insertion - card is inserted into reader
3. Touch - card placed on surface
4. Proximity - card placed in "proximity" of reader.
How do the following reader types work?
b. Mag Strip
a. Barcode - Most basic type, similar to barcodes in retail sales - printed on cared or adhesive label and is least secure. Light source shines on the card and passes the read head and reflects the light back to the light sensor, pulses of light reflected back to the read head are converted into data an sent to control unit.
b. Mag Strip - Commonly used - like credit card/ATM - magnetic material is encoded an the encoding is read when the card passes in front of the read head, duplicated by someone who has a mag strip reader, encoded on specific tracks used for card ID. Last four digits of card as # of owner. Dirt and humidity will shorten life of readers and cards.
c. Proximity - Timed circuit embedded in plastic card. Uses RF signals. Virtually impossible to duplicate and comparably priced. Very resistant to dirt and humidity.
d. Wiegand - Strips of special magnetic vicalloy wires embedded . Senses pulses from magnetic field of wires. High security virtually impossible to duplicate. Costs more. Dirt and humidity, being or bent or flexed will shorten life of reader..
What are the five basic forms of proximity media?
1. Standard (clamshell) - most economical
2. Keyfob/Keytag - Keyring
3. ISO - Credit card sized optional ID
4. Stick on - Self adhesive disks
5. Powered - vehicle or long range apps
What is the normal read range for a proximity reader?
1 to 8 inches
What card can be used to increase the range of a reader?
Why are proximity readers ideal for high traffic doors?
No contact; provides higher portal throughout (processes more users quickly)
What makes a smart card different from other card types?
Card has electronic memory; critical information is stored and non-erasable.
Where are contact type smart cards mainly used?
Credit or ATM cards, fuel cards, mobile phone SIMs, authorization cards for pay television
What information can be stored on smart cards?
Access-related information, fingerprint templates, log access activity, personal financial information, college campus application photo, dorm room, meal plan, textbook debit, medical alert.
What are hybrid/mixed cards?
Smart proximity tech and standard proximity on same card. (wiegand, magstrip, or barcode)
How can you increase the security of a keypad?
you have this crossed off - maybe adjust the volume of the beep?
What type of connection is needed when interfacing with the fire alarm panel?
Fail safe relay
What is the purpose of an audit trail?
Detailed list of all transaction occurring on the system (records/monitors)