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Flashcards in Acid Base Deck (34):
1

What is the main goal of acid base

Maintaining the bodies normal acid concentration

2

How is acid base balance achieved?

-Buffers (in ECF and ICF)
-Respiratory mechanisms that excrete CO2
-Renal mechanisms that reabsorb bicarb and secrete hydrogen

3

What is normal arterial blood range

7.37 to 7.42

4

Is arterial pH slightly acidic or alkaline?

Alkaline (even tho metabolic processes secrete acid)

5

What are non-volatile/fixed acids, and example

-Acid is acid and it doesn't change
-Ex= Sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid

6

What are volatile acids and example

CO2
-these acids are changeable

7

What are examples of abnormal fixed acids of the body

-Ketoacids
-Lactic acid
-Salicylic acid
-Formic acid
-Oxalic acid

8

What is the end product of aerobic metabolism in cells

CO2

9

Is CO2 along an acid

NOPEEEE

10

What is the equation for buffers

CO2 + H20 =H2CO3 = H + HCO3

11

What is the path of CO2 in the body

-Produced by cells
-Enters venous circulation
-Carried to the lungs to be expired

12

How are fixed acids excreted

-Filtered by the body fluids until they can be excreted into the kidneys

13

_____ helps the body fluids resist a change in pH

Buffer

14

What are 2 extacellular buffers

-Bicarb
-Phosphate

15

Acidemia stimulates ________ and produces an immediate increase in the ventilation rate (aka kusmals breathing)

central chemoreceptors

16

What is the role of the kidneys in acid base balance

-Excrete H
-Replenish HCO3

17

What are examples of intracellular buffers

-Organic phosphtaes
-Proteins (hemoglobin)

18

To utilize intracellular buffers, acid base disturbances have to....

Cross the cell membrane by 1 of 3 mechanisms

19

What are the ways that acid crosses the cell membrane

-Respiratory acid base disturbances
(CO2 enters the cell and is buffered by intracellular buffers)
-Excess or deficit of fixed acids
(Lactic acidosis- hydrogen and lactate enter the cell together)
-H exchanges with K

20

What do the kidneys do?

-Reabsorb filtered HCO3
-Excrete fixed acids

21

How much of filtered bicarb is reabsorbed by the kidneys

99.9%

22

What is the filtered load of bicarb the product of...

GFR*Plasma bicarb

23

When does the kidney stop reabsorbing bicarb

When plasma bicarb is over 40

24

What is H secreted with urinary buffers

Titratable acid

25

What is the most important of the inorganic buffers

Inorganic phosphate

26

H is secreted from the cells into the lumen where it combines with _______ to make H2PO4

HPO4 -2

27

Describe renal failures effect on metabolic acidosis

-Titratable acid excretion is decreased because GFT is reduced
-NH4 excretion is decreased second to impaired synthesis of NH3 in diseased renal cells

28

What type of diet should people with renal failure be put on to reduce fixed acid production

Low protein

29

This is the difference between measured cations and measured anions

Anion gap

30

What is the equation for anion gap

Na- (HCO3 +Cl)

31

What is the range for anion gap

8-16 meq/L

32

When is the anion gap used

-The differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis

33

What causes an increased anion gap

MUDPILES

34

What causes a normal anion gap

Loss of base (diarrhea)