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Flashcards in CBC Deck (120):
1

What does the CBC measure (4)

1. RBC
2. WBC
3. Platelets
4. % of RBC

2

What does the CBC measure (4)

1. RBC
2. WBC
3. Platelets
4. % of RBC

3

What color tube is a CBC collected in and why?

Lavender- and it contains an anticoagulant (prevents the cells from sticking together)

4

What are 3 possible collection problems in a CBC?

1. Failure to mix in anticoagulant
2. Inadequate filling
3. Standing/Tournequating the patient too long (increase [RBC])

5

What are the normal levels for hemoglobin?

Male: 13.5-16.6
Female: 12.0-15.0

6

Describe hemoglobin

-Protein that carries oxygen
-Comprises 95% of RBC protein
-Size and color of the RBC depend on hemoglobin
-Most reliable measurement in CBC

7

What 2 things combine to form hemoglobin?

Iron and protein chains

8

What 4 things make up a hemoglobin molecule?

1. Alpha group
2. Beta group
3. Iron
4. Heme group

9

What are the normal levels for hematocrit?

Male: 41-50%
Female: 36-44%

10

What is hematocrit?

The percentage of blood occupied by RBC

11

How is hematocrit calculated?

Automated systems calculate the hematocrit from RBC count times the average cell size

12

What is the average RBC's (10^6/ml)

Male: 4.5-5.5
Female: 4-4.9

13

Characteristics of RBC

-Average adult has 4.5-6 trillion/liter of blood
-Hemoglobin makes up the majority of RBC
-Non-dividing
-Average life span of 100-120 days
-Produced in bone marrow and destroyed in spleen

14

Characteristics of normal RBC

-Concave
-Fluffy
-Deep red (because of hemoglobin)

15

Production of RBC

-Bone marrow stem cells transform into RBC
-Contain receptors for erythropoietin
-Called erythrocytes

16

This is a hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of RBC in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues

Erythropoietin

17

Where is erythropoietin produced in an adult and fetus?

Adult- renal cortex
Fetus- Liver

18

What does EPO stimulate the production of?

RBC from the bone marrow

19

What happens as RBC age?

-Lose enzymes
-Lose surface membranes
-This makes them less able to pass through the spleen

20

What 2 things does hemoglobin break down into?

1. Heme (iron)
2. Protein

21

What does heme break down into?

-Free Iron
-Bilirubin
(and the body uses these for other reasons)

22

Disease characterized by low/deficient RBC

Anemia

23

Disease characterized by excessive RBC

Polycythemia

24

What does RDW stand for?

Red Cell Normal Distribution Width

25

What is the normal value for RDW?

26

This measures the degree of uniformity in size of RBC

Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)

27

Patients with small RBC will have a high/low RDW?

High- they are far away from the normal mean

28

What does MCV stand for?

Mean cell volume

29

Mean cell volume

Average cell size

30

What is the normal values for MCV?

80-100

31

MCH

Mean cell hemoglobin

32

What is the normal value for mean cell hemoglobin?

26-34

33

What does MCHC stand for?

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration

34

What is the normal MVHC value?

31-37

35

What is the normal platelet count?

100,000-450,000

36

What is ferratin?

-Iron complex containing 23% iron
-Directly related to total iron stores
-Good marker for iron deficiency
-Widely distributed to the tissues

37

What are normal ferratin levels?

13-300

38

Baby, immature erythrocytes

Reticulocytes

39

As EPO levels increase, the rate of RBC production should..

INCREASE

40

T/F: The number of reticulocytes is the most reliable measure of the rate of RBC production?

True

41

The number of baby RBC will be directly/indirectly related to the number of RBC that we will have later on

DIRECTLY

42

Describe a peripheral blood smear...

Smear the blood on a slide and count the number of each component under a microscope

43

Describe a bone marrow examination?

-Usually performed if the peripheral blood smear are inconclusive
-Gold Standard Test to document blood disorders

44

What are the 2 ways to do a bone marrow examination?

-Aspirate
-Biopsy

45

-insert need and take out fluid
-Usually adequate to evaluate most RBC disorders
-Will not recognize a number of non-uniform distributions

Aspirate

46

-Take a tissue sample
-Performed simultaneously with an aspirate

Biopsy

47

Describe serum iron

•Measures iron bound to transferrin
•Indirectly measures the rate of delivery to tissues
•Iron levels are 40% higher in the morning

48

What is transferrin?

Iron transporting protein

49

T/F: Production of transferrin is inversely related to body iron stores?

True

50

-Decrease in the amount of hemoglobin
-Most common blood disorder

Anemia

51

-Small cell anemia
-Decreased RBC size and pale color

Microcytic anemia

52

-Small cell anemia
-Decreased RBC size and pale color

Microcytic anemia

53

What color tube is a CBC collected in and why?

Lavender- and it contains an anticoagulant (prevents the cells from sticking together)

54

What are 3 possible collection problems in a CBC?

1. Failure to mix in anticoagulant
2. Inadequate filling
3. Standing/Tournequating the patient too long (increase [RBC])

55

What are the normal levels for hemoglobin?

Male: 13.5-16.6
Female: 12.0-15.0

56

Describe hemoglobin

-Protein that carries oxygen
-Comprises 95% of RBC protein
-Size and color of the RBC depend on hemoglobin
-Most reliable measurement in CBC

57

What 2 things combine to form hemoglobin?

Iron and protein chains

58

What 4 things make up a hemoglobin molecule?

1. Alpha group
2. Beta group
3. Iron
4. Heme group

59

What are the normal levels for hematocrit?

Male: 41-50%
Female: 36-44%

60

What is hematocrit?

The percentage of blood occupied by RBC

61

How is hematocrit calculated?

Automated systems calculate the hematocrit from RBC count times the average cell size

62

What is the average RBC's (10^6/ml)

Male: 4.5-5.5
Female: 4-4.9

63

Characteristics of RBC

-Average adult has 4.5-6 trillion/liter of blood
-Hemoglobin makes up the majority of RBC
-Non-dividing
-Average life span of 100-120 days
-Produced in bone marrow and destroyed in spleen

64

Characteristics of normal RBC

-Concave
-Fluffy
-Deep red (because of hemoglobin)

65

Production of RBC

-Bone marrow stem cells transform into RBC
-Contain receptors for erythropoietin
-Called erythrocytes

66

This is a hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of RBC in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues

Erythropoietin

67

Where is erythropoietin produced in an adult and fetus?

Adult- renal cortex
Fetus- Liver

68

What does EPO stimulate the production of?

RBC from the bone marrow

69

What happens as RBC age?

-Lose enzymes
-Lose surface membranes
-This makes them less able to pass through the spleen

70

What 2 things does hemoglobin break down into?

1. Heme (iron)
2. Protein

71

What does heme break down into?

-Free Iron
-Bilirubin
(and the body uses these for other reasons)

72

Disease characterized by low/deficient RBC

Anemia

73

Disease characterized by excessive RBC

Polycythemia

74

What does RDW stand for?

Red Cell Normal Distribution Width

75

What is the normal value for RDW?

76

This measures the degree of uniformity in size of RBC

Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)

77

Patients with small RBC will have a high/low RDW?

High- they are far away from the normal mean

78

What does MCV stand for?

Mean cell volume

79

Mean cell volume

Average cell size

80

What is the normal values for MCV?

80-100

81

MCH

Mean cell hemoglobin

82

What is the normal value for mean cell hemoglobin?

26-34

83

What does MCHC stand for?

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration

84

What is the normal MVHC value?

31-37

85

What is the normal platelet count?

100,000-450,000

86

What is ferratin?

-Iron complex containing 23% iron
-Directly related to total iron stores
-Good marker for iron deficiency
-Widely distributed to the tissues

87

What are normal ferratin levels?

13-300

88

Baby, immature erythrocytes

Reticulocytes

89

As EPO levels increase, the rate of RBC production should..

INCREASE

90

T/F: The number of reticulocytes is the most reliable measure of the rate of RBC production?

True

91

The number of baby RBC will be directly/indirectly related to the number of RBC that we will have later on

DIRECTLY

92

Describe a peripheral blood smear...

Smear the blood on a slide and count the number of each component under a microscope

93

Describe a bone marrow examination?

-Usually performed if the peripheral blood smear are inconclusive
-Gold Standard Test to document blood disorders

94

What are the 2 ways to do a bone marrow examination?

-Aspirate
-Biopsy

95

-insert need and take out fluid
-Usually adequate to evaluate most RBC disorders
-Will not recognize a number of non-uniform distributions

Aspirate

96

-Take a tissue sample
-Performed simultaneously with an aspirate

Biopsy

97

Describe serum iron

•Measures iron bound to transferrin
•Indirectly measures the rate of delivery to tissues
•Iron levels are 40% higher in the morning

98

What is transferrin?

Iron transporting protein

99

T/F: Production of transferrin is inversely related to body iron stores?

True

100

-Decrease in the amount of hemoglobin
-Most common blood disorder

Anemia

101

What are the 2 pathogeneses of anemia?

1. Decreased production of RBC
2. Decreased RBC survival

102

-Small cell anemia
-Decreased RBC size and pale color

Microcytic anemia

103

What are some causes of microcytic anemia?

-Iron deficiency
-Thalassemia
-Lead Poisoning in Children

104

•Inherited defects in the gene controlling globin chain synthesis
•The type is determined by what gene is effected… alpha or beta
•Produces very small RBC

Thalassemia

105

• Common in people of African ancestry
• Alpha chains are needed for synthesis of normal hemoglobin
• Deficiency causes deletion of hemoglobin S chains

Alpha Thalassemia

106

• Deletion or reproduction of beta chain
• Produces decreased hemoglobin synthesis and microcytosis
• Hemoglobin A or the beta chains are effected

Beta Thalassemia

107

• Usually seen in children
• Decreased iron, increased lead, and increased zinc

Lead Poisoning

108

- High MCV indicates defects in cell maturation
- Commonly due to B 12 or folate deficiency
- Present in alcoholics

Macrocytic Anemia

109

- Failure of bone marrow production of RBC’s in response to anemia
- Common in patients with chronic illness

Normocytic Anemia

110

- Defective production of erythropoietin (EPO- A hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues)
- Low EPO
o Cant stimulate RBC production

Anemia in Renal Failure

111

- Pathogenesis is unknown
- Cells in marrow typically don’t respond to EPO stimulation
- Defect in mobilization of iron from macrophages to transferrin
- Low serum iron and low binding capacity and low transferrin
- Serum ferritin is normal or increased

Anemia of Chronic Disease

112

- Failure of bone marrow causes decreased production
- Accompanied by low WBC and platelets

Aplastic Anemia

113

- Any disorder where a large percentage of the bone marrow is replaced by abnormal cells
- Bone marrow biopsy is needed to confirm

Bone Marrow Replacement

114

- Decreased RBC survival is associated with hemoglobin variants of C and S chains
o Ultimately changes the cells shape
- Sickle cell anemia causes changes to the cells shape
- Mutation in the beta chain
- Allows stacking of hemoglobin which changes the shape of the RBC

Hemoglobinopathies

115

- G6PD is an X linked enzyme
- Deficiency causes hemolysis or RBC when exposed to infection or oxidant drugs

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

116

- Part of an autoimmune disease such as lupus
- Can be due to drugs that attach to membranes
- IgG antibodies develop against RBC causing decreased RBC survival

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

117

- IgG antibodies are capable of passing the placenta
- Preventative

Hemolytic Disease of a newborn

118

- Increase in RBC mass over normal
- Increased hemoglobin and hematocrit
- Less common than anemia

Polycythemia

119

- Increased RBC production due to over production of EPO
- Caused by fibroid tumors

Secondary Polycythemia

120

- Inappropriate production of red blood cells
- Uncommon, seen in elderly
- Decreased EPO
- WBC and Platelets increase
- Diagnosis will be made when there is splenomegaly

Polycythemia Vera