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Flashcards in Fecal Analysis Deck (44):
1

How much stool the average adult excrete per day?

100-300 mg

2

About how much of stool is water?

70%

3

Of the remaining 30% of stool... what are the contents

-50% is bacteria and cellular debris
-The remaining portion is...
-- Vegetable residues
-- Small amounts of fat
-- Epithelial cells from the GI tract

4

About how much fluid enters into the GI tract before you have stool?

10 liters

5

Evacuates feces reflect...

The space and size of the colonic lumen

6

What is normal colonic transit time?

24-48 hours

7

Small/dark/hard

Constipation

8

Voluminous/odorous/floating

Malabsorbed fats or proteins

9

Loose with mucus

IBS

10

Loose with mucus and blood

-Inflammed bowel syndrome
-Shingella
-Carcinoma

11

Skicky/black/tarry

Upper GI tract hemorrhage

12

Voluminous/watery/little formed material

Non-invasive infection

13

Pasty/gray/white/little odor

Bile duct obstruction

14

T/F- Infants and elderly patients with diarrhea can be dangerous and fatal

True

15

Diarrhea alternating with constipation is characteristic of...

irritable bowel syndrome

16

How can you check stool for organisms or protoazoa?

Culture it

17

How can you find viral agents?

Immune electron microscopy

18

How do you check lactose intolerance?

-By administering pure lactose
-If adequate lactose is present, blood glucose levels should rise in about 60 minutes
-A lactose deficient patient will fail to achieve increased blood glucose levels
-And they will usually have cramping and diarrhea

19

What occurs in people whose intestinal flora has been killed or disturbed by antibiotics?

C. Diff

20

How do tests that look for blood in the stool work?

-Use the peroxidase activity of heme derivatives in oxidizing organic compounds

21

What is the hemoglobin metabolite with peroxidase activity

Hematin

22

What are also peroxidase enzymes?

Certain plant enzymes and materials derived from myoglobin

23

This is black tarry stool that is secondary to large quantities of blood in the upper GI tract

Melena

24

This is small amounts of blood that do not change the appearance of the stool

Occult blood

25

This is the most widely used indicator to detect occult blood

Gum Guiac

26

Does overt bleeding or obvious melena require detailed testing?

Nope- but it is important to determine if the red or black pigmentation is actually from blood (like pepto)

27

When can bright red blood be seen on the stool?

-Hemorroidal bleeding
-Ulcerative colitis
-Friable adenomas
-Superficially eroded carcinomas

28

How long can melena persist without fresh blood

5 days

29

How long will a test for occult blood remain positive

Several weeks

30

What is the hope in screening for occult blood

To detect significant lesions when the are asymptomatic or localized so that treatment can be successful

31

Causes of upper GI occult blood

-Peptic ulcer
-Erosive gastritis
-Gastric carcinoma

32

Causes of Lower GI occult blood

-Carcinoma
-Adenomatous Polyps
-Diverticulitis

33

How are patients usually screened for poop probs?

-Sent home with slides for multiple samples for multiple days
-Avoid meat or aspirin for 1 week prior to testing

34

How high can false negative results be?

As high as 20% (in patients with colon cancer or large adenomas)

35

Why do false negatives occur

-Bleeding may be intermittent
-Too much time may elapse before applying the sample and performing the test

36

When/how are microscopic exams performed?

-For detecting parasites and their ova
-The stool must be fresh
-To identify to the amoeba or other motile parasites, the stool must be warm

37

What if you see visible striated meat fibers

Proteolysis is inadequate

38

Should WBC be in the poop

Nope

39

What does WBC in the poop indicate

Inflammation

40

If unaltered RBC are present, what does this mean

usually come from the anus or the rectum
(blood from higher in the GI tract would have damage to the cells)

41

If you have malabsortion problems, how does this show up?

-Excessive fecal fat excretion

42

Lipase deficiency increases/decreases the proportion of neural fat?

Increases

43

Patients with severe malabsorption problems have low/high albumin

Low

44

Low albumin causes...

-Malnutrition
-Excessive fecal loss
-Edema