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Flashcards in WBC Deck (43):
1

Number of WBC

4,500-10,000 (cells/ml)

2

Number of segmented neutrophils

54-62%

3

Number of Band forms

3-5% (above 8% indicates left shift)

4

Number of Basophils

0-1 (0-.75%)

5

Number of Eosinophils

0-3 (1-3%)

6

Number of Lymphocytes

24-44 (25-33%)

7

Number of Monocytes

3-6%

8

Where are all white blood cells made?

Bone marrow

9

How are neutrophils made?

Myeloblasts to myelocytes (through mitosis)

10

How long does maturation of neutrophils take?

12 days

11

How is the maturation of neutrophils unique?

• If there is an increased demand- the maturation process can be sped up so that it doesn’t take as long

12

How long do neutrophils last in circulation?

8 hours

13

Once neutrophils enter the tissue...

they never return to circulation

14

Where do neutrophils migrate?

To areas of infection or inflammation

15

T/F- Neutrophils can be bacteriocidal

True

16

Where are eosinophils attracted to?

Invasion from parasites and allergic reactions

17

What can eosinophils do to parasites?

Eosinophils can damage parasites and stop them from reproducing

18

When do basophils enter tissues?

Within several hours from being released into circulation

19

When are the levels of basophils elevated?

During hypersensitivity reactions

20

What do basophils bind to?

Antigens

21

What is the role of basophils?

Breaks down the cytoplasm and releases histamine

22

How long do monocytes take to mature?

4 days

23

Are monocytes stored in the marrow?

noperssss

24

How long do monocytes spend in the marrow before they enter the tissues?

3 days

25

What is the role of monocytes in the tissues?

-Function as macrophages
-Proliferate into the tissues
-Remove old RBC from circulation
-Process and present antigens to T and B lymphocytes

26

These are stem cells from bone marrow

Lymphocytes

27

What are the 2 types of lymphocytes?

T and B lymphocytes

28

Where do T cells differentiate?

Thymus

29

What percentage of lymphocytes are T cells?

70-80%

30

What percentage of lymphocytes are B cells?

20-30%

31

What 2 groups are T cells divided into?

CD4 and CD8

32

These are receptors for signaling helper cells that signal to other immune cells
-Produce antibodies
-Activate macrophages

CD4

33

These are receptors for cytotoxic T cells
-They know when to kill and destroy a cells

CD8

34

These cells undergo differentiation in the bone marrow

B cells

35

What can B cells differentiate into? and when?

Plasma cells- after they interact with the antigen

36

These cells are part of innate immunity and they can cause lysis without previous antigen exposure

NK cells

37

T/F- All types of lymphocytes can move freely between tissues and circulation

True

38

Can lymphocytes divide when activated?

Yeppers

39

Define differential count

The % of each white cell count

40

What can cause falsely high differential counts?

Presence of reticulocytes, giant platelets, or parasites that look like WBC

41

What can cause falsely low differential counts?

Leukemia or paraproteins

42

When are manual peripheral smears needed?

•To verify results
•To evaluate for WBC abnormalities
•To look for suspected low concentrations of abnormal cells
•To look for parasites and other organisms

43

What are some indications for a bone marrow examination?

• Anemia
• Leukocytopenia
• Thrombocytopenia
• Leukemia
• Staging of tumors
• To obtain culture
• To support a diagnosis