Flashcards in Lipids Deck (43):
What part of a cell does cholesterol make up?
The cell membrane
What other roles does cholesterol play in the body
The build up of cholesterol can lead to what in the body?
Atherosclerosis- and impede blood flow
Where are cholesterol and fat located in the body?
The circulate in the blood
Can cholesterol and fat dissolve in water?
Since they circulate in the blood (that is mostly water) they are carried on protein packages known as...
Apoprotein + lipid =
What is the main type of lipoprotein?
How much apoprotein and cholesterol does LDL have?
How much apoprotein and cholesterol does HDL have?
-Provides cholesterol that is necessary for body functions but excessive amounts promote accumulation in the artery walls (atherosclerosis)
What is the role of HDL?
Remove excess cholesterol from the blood
What is the desirable ratio of LDL to HDL?
Low LDL to high HDL
What is VLDL?
-Precursor to LDL
Where is VLDL made?
In the liver, and it contains a high triglyceride component
What is the injury theory for high cholesterol and heart disease?
-A thin layer of cells that lines the arteries are damaged
-High cholesterol hinder the repair process and instead of platelets plugging the damage, the stickiness of the plaque covers the damage and allows other plaque to stick on their too
A plaque forms when...
More cholesterol sticks to the site of injury- this makes the lumen thinner and thinner
-leads to impaired blood flow
What is cholesterol needed for?
Cholesterol is the main component in ____ and ________
Bile and sex hormones
What much cholesterol does the liver produce daily?
1000 mg daily
What are the 2 major etiologies for high cholesterol?
-Overproduction by the body (rare)
-Excessive intake from the diet
What are risk factors for coronary artery disease
-Sedentary life style
(most factors are modifiable)
Should lipid testing be done after acute tissue injury?
No- lipids are FALSELY LOW after acute tissue injury
What is pregnancies effect on lipid levels?
Increase in lipid concentration (don't test during pregnancy or 9 months after pregnancy)
Prepubertal children may have _________ lipid levels
Should lipid testing be fasting/non-fasting
Fasting for 9-12 hours
What is the risk for atherosclerosis based on?
-Risk factors for CAD
What is the primary target of cholesterol therapy?
What is an optimal LDL level
LDL less than 100
What is the optimal total cholesterol?
Total cholesterol is less than 200
What is the optimal HDL levels?
Over 60, women should be over 45 (at least)
-The more HDL the better
What do triglyceride levels reflect?
The fat in your diet
What are normal triglyceride levels?
Triglycerides less than 150
What are the guidelines for cholesterol if the patient has co-morbidities?
-LDL less than 100 w/ one, or less than 70 w/ 2 or more
-Total cholesterol less than 150
-HDL greater than 60
How is hypercholesterolemia treated?
Lifestyle changes= exercising, diet, weight management
-Statins for medications
How can HDL be increased?
How can elevated trigylcerides be treated?
-Very low fat diets
-Strict control of co-morbidities
When are men and women screened for cholesterol levels?
Men- over 35
Women- over 45
When are men and women screened for cholesterol if they have CHD risk factors
Men= anytime over 20
Women= between 20 and 45
Can hypercholesterolemia be familial?
Yes- an inherited defect in LDL receptors that leads to INCREASED production of cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis
(these patients usually have an MI by 30 or 40
Can hyperbetalipoproteinemia be familial?
-Yes- caused by an abnormality or change in the LDL receptor structure
-Cholesterol concentrations are usually around 300-400
-Premature atherosclerosis usually presents around 40 or 50 years old
Can hyperalphalipoproteinemia be familial?
-Yes- autosomal dominant trait associated with increase in HDL
-VERY GOOD THING
-LDL is normally normal
-Total is usually high (because HDL is high)
-Patients usually live well into their 90s