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Flashcards in Lipids Deck (43):
1

What part of a cell does cholesterol make up?

The cell membrane

2

What other roles does cholesterol play in the body

-Structural
-Functional

3

The build up of cholesterol can lead to what in the body?

Atherosclerosis- and impede blood flow

4

Where are cholesterol and fat located in the body?

The circulate in the blood

5

Can cholesterol and fat dissolve in water?

Nope

6

Since they circulate in the blood (that is mostly water) they are carried on protein packages known as...

Apoproteins

7

Apoprotein + lipid =

Lipoprotein

8

What is the main type of lipoprotein?

LDL

9

How much apoprotein and cholesterol does LDL have?

Apoprotein= 25%
Cholesterol= 45%
-Bad cholesterol

10

How much apoprotein and cholesterol does HDL have?

Apoprotein= 50%
Cholesterol= 20%
-Good cholesterol

11

Describe LDL

-Provides cholesterol that is necessary for body functions but excessive amounts promote accumulation in the artery walls (atherosclerosis)

12

What is the role of HDL?

Remove excess cholesterol from the blood

13

What is the desirable ratio of LDL to HDL?

Low LDL to high HDL

14

What is VLDL?

-Precursor to LDL

15

Where is VLDL made?

In the liver, and it contains a high triglyceride component

16

What is the injury theory for high cholesterol and heart disease?

-A thin layer of cells that lines the arteries are damaged
-High cholesterol hinder the repair process and instead of platelets plugging the damage, the stickiness of the plaque covers the damage and allows other plaque to stick on their too

17

A plaque forms when...

More cholesterol sticks to the site of injury- this makes the lumen thinner and thinner
-leads to impaired blood flow

18

What is cholesterol needed for?

-Nerve tissues
-Brain tissue
-Skin
-Adrenal glands
-Liver

19

Cholesterol is the main component in ____ and ________

Bile and sex hormones

20

What much cholesterol does the liver produce daily?

1000 mg daily

21

What are the 2 major etiologies for high cholesterol?

-Overproduction by the body (rare)
-Excessive intake from the diet

22

What are risk factors for coronary artery disease

-Cigarette smoking
-Hypertension
-Low HDL
-High LDL
-Age
-Diabetes
-Sedentary life style
-Obesity
(most factors are modifiable)

23

Should lipid testing be done after acute tissue injury?

No- lipids are FALSELY LOW after acute tissue injury

24

What is pregnancies effect on lipid levels?

Increase in lipid concentration (don't test during pregnancy or 9 months after pregnancy)

25

Prepubertal children may have _________ lipid levels

FALSELY HIGH

26

Should lipid testing be fasting/non-fasting

Fasting for 9-12 hours

27

What is the risk for atherosclerosis based on?

-Lipid profile
-Risk factors for CAD

28

What is the primary target of cholesterol therapy?

LDL levels

29

What is an optimal LDL level

LDL less than 100

30

What is the optimal total cholesterol?

Total cholesterol is less than 200

31

What is the optimal HDL levels?

Over 60, women should be over 45 (at least)
-The more HDL the better

32

What do triglyceride levels reflect?

The fat in your diet

33

What are normal triglyceride levels?

Triglycerides less than 150

34

What are the guidelines for cholesterol if the patient has co-morbidities?

More strict...
-LDL less than 100 w/ one, or less than 70 w/ 2 or more
-Total cholesterol less than 150
-HDL greater than 60

35

How is hypercholesterolemia treated?

Lifestyle changes= exercising, diet, weight management
-Statins for medications

36

How can HDL be increased?

-Exercise
-Medication
-Stop smoking

37

How can elevated trigylcerides be treated?

-Very low fat diets
-Medication
-Strict control of co-morbidities

38

When are men and women screened for cholesterol levels?

Men- over 35
Women- over 45

39

When are men and women screened for cholesterol if they have CHD risk factors

Men= anytime over 20
Women= between 20 and 45

40

Can hypercholesterolemia be familial?

Yes- an inherited defect in LDL receptors that leads to INCREASED production of cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis
(these patients usually have an MI by 30 or 40

41

Can hyperbetalipoproteinemia be familial?

-Yes- caused by an abnormality or change in the LDL receptor structure
-Cholesterol concentrations are usually around 300-400
-Premature atherosclerosis usually presents around 40 or 50 years old

42

Can hyperalphalipoproteinemia be familial?

-Yes- autosomal dominant trait associated with increase in HDL
-VERY GOOD THING
-LDL is normally normal
-Total is usually high (because HDL is high)
-Patients usually live well into their 90s

43

What is secondary hypercholesterolemia

-A variety of disorders that increase lipoprotein synthesis
(nephrotic syndrome, obstructive jaundice, hypothyroidism)
-Total cholesterol can be 600-800 or higher