Acid Base Interpretation Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary > Acid Base Interpretation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid Base Interpretation Deck (12):
1

For every 10 mmHg of PaCO2, how much does pH change?

0.08

2

What does low serum bicarbonate suggest? (metabolic cause)

metabolic acidosis

3

What does high serum bicarbonate suggest? (metabolic cause)

metabolic alkalosis

4

Winter's formula

provides the expected PaCO2 when metabolic acidosis is present

5

What does an anion gap of greater than 20 meq/L suggest?

an identifiable metabolic acidosis from acid accumulation (MUD PILES)

6

What are the common causes of acid accumulation?

Methanol

Uremia

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Propylene glycol

Isoniazid

Lactic acidosis

Ethylene glycol

Salicylates

7

What are the common causes of non-elevated AG metabolic acidosis?

Uretero-enterostomy

Saline adiminstration

Endocrine disorders

Diarrhea

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide)

Ammonium chloride

Renal tubular acidosis

Spironolactone

8

What is the primary problem in metabolic alkalosis?

elevation of serum bicarbonate with compensatory hypoventilation

9

What are the two types of metabolic alkalosis

chloride responsive and chloride non responsive

10

chloride responsive metabolic alkalosis

associated with decreased extracellular volume

the primary consideration should be vomiting with volume depletion

volume depletion leads to reabsoprtion of NaCl and H2O

loss of chloride from vomiting causes retention of NaHCO3

11

chloride unresponsive metabolic alkalosis

occurs from too much aldosterone

causes H+ secretion in renal epithelial cells by activating the Na/H exchange

also follows intracellular shift of H for K as occurs in hypokalemia

12

delta-delta analysis

the delta anion gap from normal (10 meq/L) should be equal to the delta bicarbonate unless other conditions are present

if the serum bicarbonate is lower than expected by this analysis, then consider a concurrent bicarbonate wasting condition

if the bicarbonate is higher than expected, then consider a concurrent bicarbonate excess state