Obstructive Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Obstructive Pathology Deck (22):
1

common features of obstructive lung disease

generally increased lung volumes

generalyl decreased elastic recoil

decreased flow in the airways

do not generally progress to "honeycomb lung"

2

general features of restrictive lung disease

most involve parenchyma

decreased lung capacity

reduced expansion of lung parenchyma

may progress to end stage "honeycomb lung"

3

obstructive lung diseases

COPD - emphysema and chronic bronchitis

asthma

bronchiectasis

4

pathology of emphysema

large, overinflated lungs

enlarged alveolar spaces with "floating sepae"

5

variants of emphysema

centriacinar, panacinar, and distal acinar emphysema

6

centriacinar emphysema

most common (95%)

affects respiratory bronchioles more than alveolar ducts

smoking related

7

panacinar emphysema

affects the alveolar ducts predominantly

usually related to A1AT

8

distal acinar emphysema

usually seen in sporadic cases related to pre-existing lung scarring unrelated to A1AT deficiency or smoking

9

chronic bronchitis definition

productive cough for most days in 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years

disease of larger airways and smoking related

10

complications of chronic bronchitis

chornic airway inflammation

mucus gland hypertrophy

predisposes to superimposed infection

11

Reid index

a ratio between the thickness of the submucosal glands and the distance between the bronchial cartilage and the surface of the epithelium

an index of greater than 0.4 suggests chornic bronchitis

12

causes of bronchiectasis

cystic fibrosis

Kartagener's syndrome

repeated infections

13

Kartagener's syndrome

cilliary dyskenesis, prevents mucus clearance, resulting in obstruction

14

pathology of bronchiectasis

wall destruction and irreversible airway dilatation

15

common characteristics of asthma

reversible episodic obstruction - smooth muscle contraction, mucosal edema, mucus secretion

airway hyperreactivity

chronic inflammation - cytoking secreting Th2 lymphosites, eosinophils, and leukotrienes are central

16

atopic asthma

related to Type 1 IgE hypersensitivity reaction

17

nonatopic asthma

triggered by environmental irritants and infection

18

aspirin related asthma

Samter's triad:

asthma

aspirin allergy

nasal polyps

19

early reaction in asthma

airway constriction

vascular permeability

edema

mediated by leukotrienes, prostaglandings, histamine, etc.

20

late asthma reaction

recruitement of inflammatory cells

eosinophils, lymphocytes, etc.

21

changes in long-term asthma

airway remodeling:

epithelial damage

smooth muscle hyperplasia

mucus gland hypertrophy

22

pathologic findings of asthma

basement membrane thickening

mucus casts that take the shape of the bronchial tree, spiral structures called Churchman's spirals

Charcot Leyden crystals - a florid eosinophilic infiltrate, crystalline structures formed from the products of eosinophil degranulation