Lung Anatomy, Histology, and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lung Anatomy, Histology, and Development Deck (45)
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1

vertebrosternal ribs

ribs 1-7

2

vertebrocostal ribs

ribs 8-10

3

vertebral (floating) ribs

ribs 11-12

4

costodiaphragmatic recess

a region of parietal plerua that extends two ribs below the lung margins and is a site where fluid/blood can accumulate and be sampled

extends to the 12th rib posteriorly and 9th rib anterolaterally

5

structure of the right lung

three lobes - superior (upper), middle, and inferior (lower)

horizontal fissure separtes superior and middle lobes

oblique fissure separates middle and lower lobes

6

structure of the left lung

two lobes, superior and inferior separated by an oblique fissure

upper lobe has a "tongue-shaped" lingula that lies against the heart

7

components of the mediastinum

primary bronchus

pulmonary artery

pulonary veins

bronchial arteries off the descending aorta

autonomic plexus

lymphatic vessels and nodules

8

bronchial vs. pulmonary artery circulation

bronchial arteries come off of the descending aorta and supplies blood to the bronchi - drains into the pulmonary veins and some into the azygous system

pulmonary artery circulation is for alveoli and gas exchange

9

components of the autonomic plexus on the bronchi and pulmonary arteries

parasympathetics from the vagus nerve

postsynaptic sympthetics from the upper thoracic (T1-5) cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves

reflex afferents in vagus (pain fibers in splanchnics)

10

Which side of the lung is aspirated material likely to go into?

right - right primary bronchus is shorter and more in line with the trachea than the left

11

carina

the internal crest at the bifurcation of the trachea

12

eparterial bronchus

secondary (lobar) bronchi - right upper lobar artery

13

tertiary (segmental) bronchi

supply bronchopulmonary segments that are defined by the tertiary bronchi and the arteries that run with them

smallest lung units that can be surgically resected

14

Kerley B lines

radiologic descriptions of dilated lymphatics in interlobular septa at the periphery of the lung lower lobes

15

muscles used for inspiration

diaphragm

external oblique

accessory - scalenes, pectoralis minor, pectoralis major

serratous anterior

16

muscles used for expiration

internal oblique

abdominal muscles (rectus abdominus)

17

How many generations of branching of the airway are there?

23 generations

18

conducting portion of the airway

moves air into and out of the respiratory part

first 16 generations of branches away from the trachea

19

respiratory part of the airway

7 distal generation os branching that contains alveoli for gas exchange

20

branching sequence of the airway

trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs -> alveoli

21

cells of the conducting part of the airway from trachea through bronchi

pseudostratified columnar (respiratory) epithelium with cilia and mucous-secreting globlet cells

22

silhouette sign

the similar densities of pneumonia and the heart obscure the heart borders

23

C-shaped rings

strcutres that make up the trachea

entirely made up of hyaline cartilage

surrounds the lamina propria of loose connective tissue and submucosa of denser CT with mucous glands

no continuous muscle layer

elastic membrane between mucosa and submucosa

ends of the rings are united by a fibroelastic membrane and trachealis muscle

24

structure of the bronchi

cartilage plates rather than rings

continuous layer of smooth muscle under the cartilage plates

epithelium is the same, and goblet cells are present

25

structure of the bronchioles

lack of cartilage plates and glands (some cartilage may be present at branch points)

smooth muscle layer that is relatively thick

26

What happens to the epithelium during the transition from the largest bronchioles to the terminal bronchioles?

epithelium goes from ciliated, pseudostratified columnar in the largest bronchioles to simple cuboidal in the terminal bronchiole

27

acinus

the functional unit of the lung that contains all of the components of the alveoli

28

Clara cells

simple cuboidal cells that replace goblet cells and secrete a surfce active lipoprotein that keeps the wall sfrom sticking to each other

29

CC16

an airway fluid marker of pulmonary disease (Clara cell injury)

30

respiratory bronchioles

the first part of the airway where gas exchange occurs

alveoli start to line the walls

also ciliated and Clara cells (mostly Clara cells)