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Flashcards in Ventilation 2 Deck (6):
1

What is the PaCO2 equation?

PACO2 = (VCO2 x 0.863)/VA

VA = RR x Vt(1-Vd/Vt)

2

 common causes of hypocapnia

pain

anxiety

fever

sepsis

asthma

pneumonia

pulmonary edema

pulmonary embolism

aspirin intoxication

stimulant overdose

liver failure

pregnancy

metabolic acidosis

hyperthyroidism

psychosis

3

common causes of increase VCO2

fever

excess movement

seizures

over-feeding

hypermetabolic states such as hyperthyroidism

4

common causes of decreased VE

head rauma with raised intracranial pressure

CNS tumor or infection (encephalitis)

CNS depressant drugs (opioids, benzodiazepines, barbiturates)

obesity leading to hypoventilation

hypothyroidism

neuromuscular disease

chest wall deformity

obstructive lung disease

restrictive lung disease

5

common causes of increased Vd/Vt

pulmonary embolism

emphysema

pulmonary hyperinflation

use of low tidal volumes during mechanical ventilation

shallow breathing from illness

6

three reasons for hypercapnia

increase VCO2

decreased VE

increased Vd/Vt