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Flashcards in Acid/Base Regulation Deck (47):
1

What is amphoteric

Capable of donating and accepting protons

2

What is diprotic

Possessing two dissociable protons

3

What are zwitterions

A dipolar ion, with spatially separated positive and negative charges

4

What is isoelectric point

the pH at which a solute has no electric charge

5

What is pH derived from

the ionization of water

6

What does it mean to end with -ic acid

Acid expressed as free acid

7

What does it mean to end with -ate

Ionized conjugate base expressed. This is more acceptable under physiologic conditions

8

What is Ka?

a dissociation constant that tells the tendency of an acid to give up a proton

9

Strong acids have a strong tendency to _____ and thus a lower _____

dissociate; pka

10

When equal amounts of free acid and conjugate base are present : [HA] = ____

[A-]

11

All amino acids have at least ____ dissociable protons

2

12

What does a titration curve for glycine and other uncharged amino acids look like

pk1= 2.34 and pk2= 9.60

13

For acidic amino acids like glutamate and aspartate you get ____equivalents to give off because they have an extra charge side group

3

14

What does a titration curve for acidic amino acids like glutamate and aspartate look like

pk1= 2.19 pkR= 4.25 pk2= 9.67

15

What is unusual about the aa Histidine?

It is a basic aa that doesnt have a codon in the genetic code. It serves as a good H sensor. It's pkR = 6 whereas in other aa pkR= 10

16

What does cysteine serve as

an oxidative stress sensor. It forms and breaks disulfide bonds under oxidative stress conditions

17

Why do drug pKa's need to be neutral

To pass through membranes

18

How does pH dropping affect drug delivery

Drug becomes less affective. You need to use a lot more

19

What are peptide bonds. How are they formed?

amide bonds. They are formed by dehydration reactions

20

Formation of a peptide bond removes the (-) and (+) charges of the _____ and ___ groups involved

caryboxyl and amino

21

Overall charge of a protein is dependent on:

1. The number of amino acids with charged R groups
2. the pH of the surroundings

22

What is the intracellular fluid and urine dependent on

phosphate buffer and proteins

23

What is the extracellular fluid and blood dependent on

bicarbonate buffer and proteins

24

At physiological pH (7.0) the predominant form of the phosphate buffer system is the ______

conjugate base (proton acceptor)

25

What is pH above 7.45 called

Alkalemia

26

What is pH below 7.35 called

Acidemia

27

What is acidosis

The process of becoming acidemic

28

What is alkalosis

the process of becoming alkalemic

29

How does acidosis or alkalosis happen

may be the result of respiratory or metabolic problems

30

What is the major biological buffer of the blood

bicarbonate

31

Why is CO2 considered to be an acid

It forms with water to form carbonic acid

32

pH below _____ is lethal

6.8

33

pH above ____ is lethal

7.8

34

What is normal pH

7.4

35

What is the ratio of bicarbonate buffer system to the phosphate buffer system

20:1

36

How do you interpret arterial blood gas

1. History and physical
2. Look at the pH
3. Look at PCO2 and HCO3-
a. Distinguish initial change from compensatory response
b. Intial change will be the abnormal value that correlates with the abnormal pH

37

What is the initial chemical change and compensatory response for respiratory acidosis

High PCO2 and high HCO3-

38

What is the initial chemical change and compensatory response for metabolic acidosis

Low bicarbonate and low PCO2

39

What is the initial chemical change and compensatory response for respiratory alkalosis

Low PCO2, low bicarbonate

40

What is the initial chemical change and compensatory response for metabolic alkalosis

High bicarbonate; and high PCO2

41

What happens when you breathe slowly

You hold in more CO2, so your lungs decrease the amount of acid to compensate

42

what does hypoventilation mean

Less C02 is being released. PCO2 increases, blood pH decreases

43

What does hyperventilation mean

More CO2 is released; PCO2 decreases, blood pH increases

44

What are some common causes of respiratory acidosis

Emphysema and depressed CNS respiratory center

45

What are some common causes of respiratory alkalosis

Hysteria/hyperventilation, or high altitude

46

What are some common causes of metabolic alkalosis

antacid abuse or excessive vomiting

47

What are common causes of metabolic acidosis

diabetic ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis