Lipids Flashcards Preview

MCBM > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (56):
1

What are the lipid classes

1. Free fatty acids: Energy FAs
2. Glycerolipids: Energy FA's; triglyceride storage form
3. Glycerophospholipids: found in cell membrane
4. Sphingolipids: found in cell membrane
5. Eicosinoids: signal transduction. prostaglandins, autocrine/paracrine (act locally) in inflammatory or splinter response
6. Sterols: cholesterol derivatives ; hormones, vitamins
7. Prenols: Vitamin A; metabolic intermediate

2

What is ex of free fatty acid

palmitate (16 c and no DB; saturated)

3

What is ex of glycerolipids

Di and Triacylglycerols

4

What is ex of glycerophospholipds

phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol

5

what is ex of sphingolipids

sphingomyelin, ceramide

6

what is ex of eicosinoids

prostaglandins

7

What is ex of sterols

cholesterol

8

what is ex of prenols

retinol, ubiquinone

9

Which type of fat is most prevalent in the human body

unsaturated fats with one DB

10

Polyunsatured fats:

fatty acids with two or more double acids; PUFAs

11

LDL is considered to be :

bad cholesterol

12

palmitic fatty acid is impt for

metabolism

13

Linoleic acid and LInolenic are imortant:

PUFA's; we have to get them from diet; linoleic acid is precursor for arachidonic acid

14

Saturated fats elevate ___levels

cholesterol

15

Monounsaturated fats lower ___ and ___

LDL and cholesterol

16

Polyunsaturated fats

lineoleic and linoleic acid are essential FA's

17

Omega 3 fatty acids importance:

Limolenic acid is most important!
-Reduce's BP and heart rate
-anti arrhythmic
-anti-thrombotic
-anti inflammatory

18

What is a storage lipid

triacylglycerols

19

What are the membrane lipids

phospholipids: glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids
glycolipids: sphingolipids

20

What do storage lipids consist of

ester bond bet glycerol and FA which neutralizes charge on acid
-main storage form of energy

21

Fat is our major ___store

fuel

22

What does adipose tissue consist of

65% triglyceride
very metabolically active
hormonally regulated
storage tissue for FA/energy; quickly releases free FA when needed

23

Which hormone is the fuel mobilizer

glucagon; mobilizes fat

24

Protein in blood thats carrier for everything

albumin; catch all carrier molecule; carries free FA released from adipose to the body

25

Membrane lipids consist of phospholipids which consists of:

glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids

26

Glycerophospholipids consist of:

1. glycerol back bone, 2 fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group + alcohol; If head group substituent is = H; then its would be called phosphatidic acid

27

What is phosphotidil inositil important for

cell signaling; helps to activate protein kinase C which is involved in Ca++ release

28

What is cardiolipin

a special glycerophospholipid found in inner mitochondrial membrane; found in heart muscle and important in organizeing complexes of ETC and making permeability transition pore that opens up cytochrome c which triggers the apoptotic pathway in cell death.

29

What is abnormal cardiolipin associated with

alzheimers and parkinsons disease as well as Barth syndrome which is an X-linked disorder caused by defect in cardiolipin processing protein

30

What are the functions of glycerophospholipids

Membrane: Interact with cell- cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, lipid anchors for proteins

Messenging: Reservoir for arachidonic acid, reservoir for inositol (for cell signaling)

Misc: lung surfactant, platelet activating factor (PAF); special ether derivative impt in clotting

31

Where does Phospholipase A1 cut

at number one position

32

Where does Phospholipase A2 cut

at number 2 position; important enzyme in synthesis of ichosinoids

33

What is importance of phospholipase C

important in cell signaling bc it releases inositol group

34

What is importance of ether linked glycerophospholipids

1. Formation of Plasmalogen
2. Formation of platelet activating factor
-Overall importance is blood clotting

35

Sphingolipids have ____backnbone

serine

36

What are characteristics of sphingolipids

-A type of phospholipid NOT derived from fat
-Found primarily in nerve tissue/myelin sheath
-25% of lipids found in humans

37

If H at number 3 position of sphingolipid it would be called a

ceramide; a signaling molecule

38

Functions of sphingolipids

Mediate: cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, cell-microbe interactions
Modulate: Antiproliferative responses, protein kinase activity, growth factor receptor activity
Maintain: structural rigidity in membranes, membrane protein conformation

39

Instead of forming a ceramide or phosphotil choline, sphingolipids can form a ____on "X"

sugar

40

What are the sugar backbones that can form on sphingolipids

glycosphingolipids, globosides, and gangliosides; depending on how many sugars are added in the presence or absence of NAN

41

O- antigen is a:

sphingosine + FA + sugars

42

If NAN attached on glycosphingolipid then you have what type of antigen

A antigen

43

Just a galatose on the end = what type of antigen

B antigen

44

O= universal donor
AB = universal ____

recipient

45

What are lysosomal storage disorders

Hexosaminidase A deficiency is common in Osh Kinosi Jewish population that causes Tay Sachs; children dev normally and then reverting and losing ability to do anything and die at a young age.

46

What is derived from arachidonic acid

Eicosinoids; has 4 DB; important PUFA to make prostaglandins, thromoxane and leukotriene

47

What can block Prostaglandin and Thromboxane synthesis

NSAIDs

48

What are the function of Eicosinoids

1. Mediate inflammatory resoponses
2. Mediate allergic reactions-->bronchoconstriction

49

What are the three types of eicosinoids

1. Prostaglandins
2. Thromboxanes
3. Leukotrienes

50

What are the function of prostaglandins

1. reg smooth muscle contraction and steroid production.
2. inhibit gastric secretion and hormone sensitive lipase
3. inhibit/stimulate platelet aggregation
4. Ref nerve transmission and sensitization to pain
5. mediate inflammatory response
6.

51

what are the function of thromboxanes

1. made in platelets
2. induce platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction
3. induce lymphocyte proliferation
4. induce bronchoconstriction.

52

What are the function of leukotrienes

1. involved in allergic and inflammatory responses
2. made in WBC's and epithelial cells
3. induce leukocyte cheotaxis and aggregation

53

What is the function of cholesterol

hydrophobic except for one polar hydroxyl group.

54

What is the biggest product of cholesterol metabolism

Bile salts; they emulsify fat during digestion to help it get digested properly.

55

___hormones are derived from cholesterol

steroid; in adrenal cortex (cortisol and aldosterone) which we use for inflammation. cortisol has effects on metabolism.

56

What are prenols

Vitamin A and Vitamin E and K, Warfarin and ubiquinone.