# Thermodynamics Flashcards

1
Q

What is the first law of thermodynamics

A

Conservation of energy: Energy remains constant; it may change from one form to another but it cant be created or destroyed.

2
Q

What is the second law of thermodynamics

A

In all natural processes, the entropy of the universe increases. Total entropy includes both the system and surroundings

3
Q

Living organisms are ____systems

A

open

4
Q

We can ___order within ourselves but ____order in our surroundings.

A

create; decrease

5
Q

We extract energy from nutrients via _____reactions

A

catabolic

6
Q

We use energy for work:

A

7
Q

____processes produce simple components and increase entropy

A

Catabolic

8
Q

____processes use simple components and decrease entropy

A

Anabolic

9
Q

Gibbs free energy is defined in terms of:

A
1. Enthalpy: a measure of heat energy that reflects bond formation and breakage
2. Entropy (S): randomness
3. Temperature (T): in K
10
Q

If delta H is greater than 0=

A

endothermic; heat energy is absorbed

11
Q

If delta H is less than 0

A

exothermic; heat energy is released

12
Q

By convention delta S is positive when

A

entropy increases

13
Q

By convention delta H is negative when

A

heat is released to the surroundings

14
Q

By convention T is always

A

positive

15
Q

Endergonic reactions require ____ of energy (positive delta G); and its thermodynamically _____

A

input; unfavorable

16
Q

Exergonic reactions ____energy (negative delta G); and its thermodynamically ____ and _____

A

release; favorable and spontaneous

17
Q

Endergonic reactions can be coupled to ____reactions to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable process forward, often by coupling to the hydrolysis of ____

A

exergonic; ATP

18
Q

Equilibrium is formation of products = formation of _____

A

reactants

19
Q

Delta G of chemical reactions is alternative of equilibrium contant:

A

Keq

20
Q

Equilibrium constant is constant as ratio of products over

A

reactants

21
Q

If Keq is greater than 1, then:

A

products is greater than reactants and the reaction goes forward

22
Q

If Keq is less than 1 then:

A

Products is less than reactants and the reaction goes in reverse

23
Q

If Keq is = 1 then:

A

products is equal to reactants. There is no reaction

24
Q

Delta G is actual energy used for ___

A

analysis

25
Q

Delta G with degrees is ____condition

A

standard; used for general comparison

26
Q

Delta G with degrees and prime is used for ______standard conditions

A

biological

27
Q

Delta G degrees and prime is equal to

A

-RTln Keq

28
Q

Reaction rate depends on ____ energy

A

activation

29
Q

If delta G prime and degrees is greater than 23 kj/mol or Keq is less than 10^-4 the reaction is biologically

A

irreversible

30
Q

Overall free energy change is :

A

31
Q

Overall equilibrium constant is :

A

multiplicative

32
Q

RT =

A

2.478 kJ/mole

33
Q

Delta G prime and degrees is equal to

A

-RTlnKeq

34
Q

If we remove product as it is formed, then product will be low and overall delta G can be be ____even if Delta G prime with degrees is greater than 0

A

negative

35
Q

When Keq is greater than 1:

A

Delta G prime +degrees is negative and the reaction proceeds forward

36
Q

When Keq is 1:

A

Delta G prime +degrees is 0 and the reaction is at equilibrium

37
Q

When Keq is less than 1

A

Delta G prime + degrees is positive and the reaction proceeds in reverse

38
Q

How much ATP is in the body?

A

100g

39
Q

How much ATP does a resting human consume per day

A

40 kg

40
Q

How fast is ATP typically consumed

A

Usually within 1 minute of formation

41
Q

How does ATP store energy

A
1. charge repulsion relieved when hydrolized
2. resonance stabilization of Pi
4. Stabilization of ADP by Mg2+ chelation
5. Maintain low ATP concentration
42
Q

What is PEP

A

member of glycolytic pathway used by bacteria as energy source to conserve ATP

43
Q

Catabolic processes are ____ and _____

A

44
Q

Anabolic processes are _____ and _____

A

45
Q

Oxidation is ____of electrons

A

loss

46
Q

Reduction is ____of electrons

A

gain

47
Q

Redox reactions are driven by

A

electron transfer

48
Q

Electrons are transferred by 4 methods:

A
1. directly as electrons
2. as H atoms
3. as a hydride ion
4. direct combination with oxygen
49
Q

___ _____ is commonly used to designate a single electron equivalent participating in an oxidation-reduction reaction regardless of which of the four is the electron source.

A

Reducing equivalent

50
Q

What is nitric oxide (NO)

A

A gaseous hormone

51
Q

Biological redox largely based on the aa:

A

cysteine

52
Q

Redox reactions happen in pairs called:

A

Redox couple

53
Q

Enzymes that catalyze these reactions are called

A

dehydrogenases

54
Q

Electron accepting molecule is the ____agent has and a ____E delta prime

A

oxidizing; positive

55
Q

Electron donating molecule is the ____agent and has a ____E delta prime

A

reducing; negative

56
Q

In a redox couple, the molecule with the more _____E delta prime will accept electrons and get _____; it has the greater ____ _____

A

positive; reduced; reduction potential

57
Q

A more positive delta E prime gives you a more ___delta G prime

A

negative

58
Q