Cell Structure and Function -Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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The only human cell we could see with the naked eye are the ______



USe ____ and ____

SEM (passing e- beams across surface); TEM (shows up as dark if dense)


What is phase contrast

1. only get light that passes directly through the sample to get a higher contrast


What is immunohistochemistry

Use antibodies specific to antigen we're looking for (protein). Use second antibody for sample tagged with flourescent dye. You get multiple tags.


What is bright field microscopy

basophilic structures are stained with hemotoxilin (stained purple) --> DNA, RNA, and ribosomes and eosin( stained pink)--> cytoplasm and collagen


What is Periodic Acid Schiff

Detects carbohydrates. Turns magenta in prescence of aldehydes


What does acid phosphatase reaction detect

Detecs phosphatase enzyme activity. Specific for peroxisomes. Make phosphate and this will react with sulfide. You get color product.


What are the 4 main type of tissues

1. Nervous tissue: found in SC, brain. Main cell is the neuron.
2. Connective: Cells within an ECM matrix; bone, cartilage, blood, tendons, ligaments
3. Epithelium: forms lining of body cavities, external surfaces and glands. Has specific polarity (apical and basal)
4. Muscle: Subdivided into smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle. Smooth innervated by autonomic


What are the jobs of epithelium tissues

shape and number of layers; important for providing barriers for our body


types of connective tissues

Cartilage, adipose, bone, blood


What makes up the cytoplasmic matrix

mostly water, ions, enzyme and other macromoleucules


What are components of plasma membrane

phopholipid bilayer: forms a barrier to polar/charged molecules
2. membrane proteins: transport, anchor and acts as receptors for the cell
3. glycocalyx: coat covers exernal surface with carbs
4. cholesterol: determines fluidity


WHat are properties of nucleus

bound by membranes. Store DNA. Has double bilyaer membrane and has pores to comm with other parts of the cell.
Heterochromatin: DNA thats not being transcribed; more dense
Euchchromatin: light staining; DNA that is activiely being transcribed.
Nucleolis: transcription of ribosomal RNAS. Stains dark!


What do you see on upclose view of EM

Double bilayer, nuclear pores (gaps bet bilayer)


What are components of mitochondria

Primary source of ATP
Carry TCA cycle and beta oxidation of fatty acids.
-Replicates by binary fission
-Synthesizes 8 of its own proteins
-99% of its proteins are encoded in the nucleus.
-Inner membrane is convulated; has cristae, inc surface area of mitochondrial membrane
-Outer membrane has a lot of channels permeable to water and ions. Protein composition is unique.