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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals Deck (60):
1

Vitamins can be divided into ____ soluble and ____soluble

water; fat

2

What are the water soluble vitamins

1. B complex
2. Vitamin C
3. Folacins
-Generally not stored except folate and B12

3

What are the fat soluble viamins

Vitamins A, D, E, and K
-Generally stored

4

Beta carotene has ____units.

isoprene;

5

Retinal binds with ___ to form rhodopsin.

opsin

6

cyclic GMP is upregulated by

nitric oxide; ion channels open and close; changes conc of sodium and calcium

7

What are the Vitamin A derivatives

1. retinal (all trans)
2. retinal (11 cis)
3. retinoic acid (all trans)
4. retinoic acid (9-cis)

8

Retinoic acid serves as a hormone for regulating ____differentiation

epithelial

9

What is Vitamin A important for

1. Vision
2. Cell signaling; cellular differentiation, morphongenesis, reproduction, and immune response

10

What does Vitamin A deficiency cause

1. night blindness
2. skin lesions
3. vulnerability to infections

11

What happens during Vitamin A deficiency while pregnant

1. Micropthalmia (small eyes)
2. cleft palate/lip
3. cardiovascular and urogenital anamolies
4. malformed limbs

12

What happens during Vitamin A toxicity

1. Nausea
2. weight loss
3. liver damage
4. joint pain
* a major teratogen during pregnancy

13

What is Vitamin D a derivative of

cholesterol

14

What is the enzyme involved in Vitamin D metabolism in the liver

25-hydroxylase

15

What is the enzyme involved in Vitamin D metabolism in the kidneys

1-hyroxylase

16

What happens when you have Vitamin D deficiency

1. Rickets (children)
2. Osteomalacia (adults)
3. Enlarged epiphyseal growth plates
4. defective remineralization of bone, bone pain, and muscle weakness

17

What happens during Vitamin D Toxicity

1. Weakness
2. loss of appetite
3. unusual thirst
4. nausea and vomiting
5. high blood pressure
6. increase Ca++ reabsorption from bones and deposition in soft tissues

18

What is Vitamin E

alpha tocopherol
-Protects PUFA's (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in membrane phospholipids and cholesterol from attack by peroxides and free radicals
-Protects retinal in photoreceptor cells

19

Vitamin E is a potent ___

antioxidant

20

What are causes Vitamin E deficiency

associated with lipid malabsorption (rare in humans)
-premature infants: may present with pulmonary distress and retinopathy
-neuronal degeneration of the spinal cord and peripheral axons

21

What is Vitamin K1 (phyloquinone)

found in green leafy vegetables

22

What is Vitamin K2 found in (menaquinone)

intestinal bacteria

23

What is Vitamin K3 found in

synthetic menadione

24

What is Vitamin K important for

blood clotting;

25

What kind of patients on Warfarin

patients at risk for clot formation

26

Vitamin K is in quinone form and undergoes quinone reductase which takes carbonyls and convert them to ____ to make ____ that serves as a cofactor for Vitamin K dependent carboxylase. This gets converted to epoxide form.

hydroxyls; hydro quinone

27

Vitamin K deficiency causes

1. increased prothrombin time
2. leading to easy bruisability and bleeding tendency

28

Thiamine pyrophospate (TPP) is an important cofactor for:

1. transketolase (non oxidative PPP)
2. pyruvate dehydrogenase
3. alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenase
4. branched chain alpha ketoacid dehydrogenase

29

Thiamine deficiency causes:

1. Dry Beriberi: NS associated includes transketolase and wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

2. Wet Beriberi: affects cardiovascular system; tachycardia and edema

30

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is important for what

Precursor for FMN and FAD

31

What does Vitamin B2 deficiency cause

Angular cheilosis: dryness and cracking at the corners of the mouth

32

Trp and Niacin are precursors for

NAD

33

What happens when you have vitamin B3 deficiency

1. dermatitis (photosensitive)
2. diarrhea
3. dementia
4. soreness and inflammation of the tongue and mouth

34

What is vitamin B3 made of

niacin

35

What happens when you have Vitamin B5 (pantothenate) deficiency

1. burning foot syndrome
2. skin abnormalities
3. GI upset
4. fatigue and weakness
5. insomnia

36

vitamin B5 is also called

pentothenate

37

What is Vitamin B6 (pyradaxone) important for

important in aa and glycogen metabolism

38

Vitamin B6 is important cofactor for:

1. Transamination reactions
2. glycogen phosphorylase
3. Heme synthesis
4. niacin synthesis
5.

39

What does Vitamin B6 deficiency cause

1. collagen defects: bone, CT, blood vessels
2. Neural defects: lower limb paralysis

40

Vitamin B7 is considered:

Biotin; important carbon dioxide carrier in carboxylase reactions.

41

What does vitamin B7 deficiency cause

fungal infections
hair loss (alopecia)
depression
myalgias

42

What is Vitamin B8 (inositol)

important in cell signaling; if taken with folic acid it can prevent fetal neural tube defects

43

What is vitamin B9 (folate) important for

Precursor for tetrahydrofolate: methyl group transfers

44

What does folate deficiency cause

inc. neural tube defects in fetus, including spina bifida and anencephaly.
In adults it can contribute to megaloblastic anemia

45

What is Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) important for

1. Source of free radicals for H+ exchanges. Involved in aa metabolism.

46

What does vitamin B12 or intrinsic factor deficiency cause

pernicious anemia; smooth red tongue (glossitis); causes a marocytic anemia , mean cell volume is over 100

47

What is Vitamin B12 made of

anaerobic bacteria in gut; found in meat and dairy products
-requires intrinsic factor (protein secreted by gastric parietal cells) for proper absorption in ileum.
-Its released into bloodstream carried by transcobalamin II
-stored in liver

48

What is Vitamin C important

made from glucose.

49

What can vitamin c deficiency lead to

scurvy- defective proline hydroxylation of collagen leads to weak gingiva, easy bruising

50

What are the major minerals

Bone: Ca, P
Electrolytes: Na, K, Cl, S

51

What are the trace elements

iron, zinc, cr, copper, iodine, magnesium, Se, Co, Vn, Nickel, SI, Mo

52

Iron is transported with ____ and stored with ____ or ___ in bone marrow, liver, and muscle

transferrin; ferritin or hemosiderin

53

zinc and copper serve as ___for imporant enzymes

cofactors

54

zinc is a cofactor for:

dehydrogenases
superoxide dismutase
carbonic anydrase, matrix metalloproteinases

55

zinc deficiency causes

acrodermatitis enteropathica; genetic disorder

56

Cofactors of copper include

lysl oxidase
tryosinase
dopamine betra hyroxylase
cytochrome c oxidase
superoxide dismutase
ceruloplasmin

57

deficiencies of copper include

weak blood vessels
hypopigmentation
nerological defects
fatigue

58

What is Wilsons disease

copper overload; in brain liver and eyes (Kayser-Fleisher rings)
-Treated by chelation therapy which will bind copper and help get it removed from bloodstream. It's a derivative of penicillin

59

Iodine is important for

thyroid; to make active forms of thyroxine and triiodothyronine synthesis

60

Deficiency in iodine causes

goiter: thyroid is enlarged
Cretinism: facial abnormalities