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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals Deck (60)
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1

Vitamins can be divided into ____ soluble and ____soluble

water; fat

2

What are the water soluble vitamins

1. B complex
2. Vitamin C
3. Folacins
-Generally not stored except folate and B12

3

What are the fat soluble viamins

Vitamins A, D, E, and K
-Generally stored

4

Beta carotene has ____units.

isoprene;

5

Retinal binds with ___ to form rhodopsin.

opsin

6

cyclic GMP is upregulated by

nitric oxide; ion channels open and close; changes conc of sodium and calcium

7

What are the Vitamin A derivatives

1. retinal (all trans)
2. retinal (11 cis)
3. retinoic acid (all trans)
4. retinoic acid (9-cis)

8

Retinoic acid serves as a hormone for regulating ____differentiation

epithelial

9

What is Vitamin A important for

1. Vision
2. Cell signaling; cellular differentiation, morphongenesis, reproduction, and immune response

10

What does Vitamin A deficiency cause

1. night blindness
2. skin lesions
3. vulnerability to infections

11

What happens during Vitamin A deficiency while pregnant

1. Micropthalmia (small eyes)
2. cleft palate/lip
3. cardiovascular and urogenital anamolies
4. malformed limbs

12

What happens during Vitamin A toxicity

1. Nausea
2. weight loss
3. liver damage
4. joint pain
* a major teratogen during pregnancy

13

What is Vitamin D a derivative of

cholesterol

14

What is the enzyme involved in Vitamin D metabolism in the liver

25-hydroxylase

15

What is the enzyme involved in Vitamin D metabolism in the kidneys

1-hyroxylase

16

What happens when you have Vitamin D deficiency

1. Rickets (children)
2. Osteomalacia (adults)
3. Enlarged epiphyseal growth plates
4. defective remineralization of bone, bone pain, and muscle weakness

17

What happens during Vitamin D Toxicity

1. Weakness
2. loss of appetite
3. unusual thirst
4. nausea and vomiting
5. high blood pressure
6. increase Ca++ reabsorption from bones and deposition in soft tissues

18

What is Vitamin E

alpha tocopherol
-Protects PUFA's (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in membrane phospholipids and cholesterol from attack by peroxides and free radicals
-Protects retinal in photoreceptor cells

19

Vitamin E is a potent ___

antioxidant

20

What are causes Vitamin E deficiency

associated with lipid malabsorption (rare in humans)
-premature infants: may present with pulmonary distress and retinopathy
-neuronal degeneration of the spinal cord and peripheral axons

21

What is Vitamin K1 (phyloquinone)

found in green leafy vegetables

22

What is Vitamin K2 found in (menaquinone)

intestinal bacteria

23

What is Vitamin K3 found in

synthetic menadione

24

What is Vitamin K important for

blood clotting;

25

What kind of patients on Warfarin

patients at risk for clot formation

26

Vitamin K is in quinone form and undergoes quinone reductase which takes carbonyls and convert them to ____ to make ____ that serves as a cofactor for Vitamin K dependent carboxylase. This gets converted to epoxide form.

hydroxyls; hydro quinone

27

Vitamin K deficiency causes

1. increased prothrombin time
2. leading to easy bruisability and bleeding tendency

28

Thiamine pyrophospate (TPP) is an important cofactor for:

1. transketolase (non oxidative PPP)
2. pyruvate dehydrogenase
3. alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenase
4. branched chain alpha ketoacid dehydrogenase

29

Thiamine deficiency causes:

1. Dry Beriberi: NS associated includes transketolase and wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

2. Wet Beriberi: affects cardiovascular system; tachycardia and edema

30

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is important for what

Precursor for FMN and FAD