Acute and chronic inflammation Flashcards Preview

Pathology (m) > Acute and chronic inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute and chronic inflammation Deck (38):
1

Name the causes of inflammation

Foreign bodies (splinter)
Infections (bacterial/viral/fungal)
Ischaemia/infarction (heart attack)
Physical and chemical damage (acid burns)
Immune reactions (asthma)

2

Define inflammation

The host response to tissue damage

3

Why does vasodilation occur in acute inflam?

To increase blood flow to injured area

4

What influences vasodilation?

Histamine and nitric acid

5

Increased permeability leads to what?

Oedema as fluids leaks into extravascular tissue

6

Vasodilation and increased permeability leads to...

Blood stasis

7

If endothelial cells become injured or contract this causes what?

Extravascular leakage

8

Define main aim of inflam

Recruit leukocytes to area of damage

9

Marigination =

Rbc in the middle wbc near the endothelial cells

10

Transmigration =

Wbc going into extravascular space

11

Opsonin receptors recognise...

Microbes that have been coated with protein

12

Cytokine receptors respond to...

Cytokines

13

G protein coupled receptors recognise...

N-formymethionyl of bacteria as well as chemokine breakdown

14

Aim of acute inflam...

To resolve injury and promote healing

15

Chronic inflam is caused by

Acute inflam (not as common)
Persistent infection
Immune mediated inflam
(parasite/myobacteria)
Prolonged exposure to toxic agen (atherosclerosis)

16

Tissue damage can occur when...

There is a long inflammatory reaction

17

What are the signs of attempted healing?

Connective tissue repair
Increased growth of small bv
Fibrosis

18

Clinical signs of chronic inflam

Redness (rubor)
Heat (calor)
Swelling (tumor)
Pain (dolor)
Loss of function

19

What are the outcomes of acute inflam?

Complete resolution
Healing by fibrosis
Abscess formation
Chronic inflam

20

Signs and symptoms of chronic inflam?

Fever
Tachycardia
Hypotension
Raised CRP
Raised WCC

21

Name the more severe side effects of chronic inflam

Anorexia
General malaise
Sepsis

22

Which type of inflam is short lived and is a rapid response?

Acute

23

Which wbc is dominant in acute inflam?

Neutrophil

24

Exaggerated inflame response can cause...

Allergies
Hypersensitivity reactions
Autoimmune diseases

25

Poor immune responses can cause...

Immunodeficency conditions/diseases

26

Medication for inflam...

NSAIDS
Anti-histamines
Steroids
Targeted biologics

27

No inflam response leads to...

Tissue damage
Prolonged healing of wounds
+ Infection susceptibility

28

Acute appendicitis symptoms are...

Pyrexia
Raised HR
Nausea/vomiting
Raised WCC/CRP
*If CRP +100, not good*

29

Complications of acute appendicitis is...

Possible perforation leading to peritonitis/abscess formation

30

Septic arthritis symptoms are...

Pyrexia
Raised HR
Raised WCC/CRP

31

Possible causes of septic arthritis?

Prosthetic joint
Recent surgery/trauma to knee
Age
RA
Immunodeficiency

32

Treatment of septic arthritis?

IV abx
Joint aspirate
Sepsis 6

33

In a minor injury such as a sprained ankle, is the inflam response of any use?

No

34

Rheumatoid arthritis is...

Chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition

35

During rheumatoid arthritis macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma attempt to remove foreign agents which causes...

Health tissue damage

36

Treatments of RA?

Steroids
DMARDs
Biologics

37

Name a disorder where initially, it is acute inflam but leads to chronic inflam...

Peptic ulcers

38

Treatment of peptic ulcers?

PPI's
Abx
Histamine receptor agonist