Flashcards in Upper GI Deck (43):
What is the time scale for something to be classed as chronic?
Define chronic gastritis
Ongoing inflammation of the stomach mucosa
Inflammation of the stomach mucosa can...
Make you more vulnerable to other diseases (carcinoma/dysplasia)
Compare to acute gastritis symptoms of chronic gastritis are less ______ but more _______
Upper abdo pain
Socially uncomfortable sounds
Loss of appetite/weight loss
Are symptoms of...
Causes of chronic gastritis are... (ABCO)
Bacterial (H Pylori)
Other = stress
H Pylori is gram...
How does H Pylori survive in the bowel? (2)
1. By penetrating the surface and 'hiding' in the mucosa.
2. Produces urease
*will not live on surface because it will die due to o2 supply*
How is H Pylori (probably) acquired?
80% of H Pylori is
5-10% of H Pylori causes
Peptic ulcer disease
H Pylori can affect any part of the main body of the stomach
What are the 2 most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)?
If pain comes 2hrs after eating this would indicate that the ulcer is located in the...
If pain comes straight after eating this would indicate that the ulcer is located in the...
Pain worse after eating and at night are symptoms of
Define peptic ulcer disease...
A lesion in the digestive tract lining (mucosa)
Name the complications associated with PUD...
Bleeding leading to anaemia
Perforation leading to peritonitis
Long term cancer on the edge of the ulcer
What happens to the cells in the oesophagus during Barrett's oesophagus (BO)?
*squamous epithelium is replaced with columnar epithelium and goblet cells*
What is the reasons the cells adapt in BO?
Due to chronic acid exposure from refulx
During endoscopy what would BO show?
Red and white patches
What does BO have a strong association with?
Upper GI malignancy areas (3)
Name the risk factors of oesphogeal squamous cell carcinoma...
Achlasia (damage to nerves in oesoph)
What can patients with oesophogeal cancer develop?
Name the late symptoms of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
Resipratory fistula with aspiration
Cancer developing from a gland
What is oesophageal adenocarcinoma largely caused by?
Dysplastic changes in BO
How does oesophageal carcinoma sprerad?
Direct (quickly to surrounding tissues)
Haematogenous (via blood)
Adenocarcinoma stomach makes up
Of gastric malignancies
Helicobacter associated gastritis
*Change in the appearance or nature of a cell before it becomes cancerous*
Early symptoms of adenocarcinoma stomach can often be mistaken for...
Advance symptoms of adenocarcinoma stomach are...
How does adenocarcinoma spread?
Lymphatics (virchows node= inflamm)
The presence or formation of new abnormal growth or tissue
Name the different types of small bowel neoplasia...
GI stromal tumor
Name the risk factors for small bowel neoplasia...
Define coeliac disease...
Extensive mucosal disease disease related to sensitivity to gluten
Is coeliac disease an autoimmune disease?
How can coeliac disease be diagnosed?
Blood test (TTG)
Coeliac disease can lead to...
Adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small bowel