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Flashcards in Upper GI Deck (43):
1

What is the time scale for something to be classed as chronic?

3 months

2

Itis =

Inflammation

3

Define chronic gastritis

Ongoing inflammation of the stomach mucosa

4

Inflammation of the stomach mucosa can...

Make you more vulnerable to other diseases (carcinoma/dysplasia)

5

Compare to acute gastritis symptoms of chronic gastritis are less ______ but more _______

Severe
Persistent

6

Upper abdo pain
Indegestion/bloating
Socially uncomfortable sounds
N&V
Loss of appetite/weight loss
Are symptoms of...

Chronic gastritis

7

Causes of chronic gastritis are... (ABCO)

Autoimmune diseases
Bacterial (H Pylori)
Chemical
Other = stress

8

H Pylori is gram...

-

9

How does H Pylori survive in the bowel? (2)

1. By penetrating the surface and 'hiding' in the mucosa.
2. Produces urease
*will not live on surface because it will die due to o2 supply*

10

How is H Pylori (probably) acquired?

Faecal-oral route

11

80% of H Pylori is

Asymptomatic

12

5-10% of H Pylori causes

Peptic ulcer disease

13

H Pylori can affect any part of the main body of the stomach
True
False

True

14

What are the 2 most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)?

H Pylori
NSAIDs

15

If pain comes 2hrs after eating this would indicate that the ulcer is located in the...

Duodenum

16

If pain comes straight after eating this would indicate that the ulcer is located in the...

Stomach

17

Pain worse after eating and at night are symptoms of

PUD

18

Define peptic ulcer disease...

A lesion in the digestive tract lining (mucosa)

19

Name the complications associated with PUD...

Bleeding leading to anaemia
Massive haematemsis
Perforation leading to peritonitis
Long term cancer on the edge of the ulcer

20

What happens to the cells in the oesophagus during Barrett's oesophagus (BO)?

Metplasia
*squamous epithelium is replaced with columnar epithelium and goblet cells*

21

What is the reasons the cells adapt in BO?

Due to chronic acid exposure from refulx

22

During endoscopy what would BO show?

Red and white patches

23

What does BO have a strong association with?

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma

24

Upper GI malignancy areas (3)

Oesophageal
Stomach
Small bowel

25

Name the risk factors of oesphogeal squamous cell carcinoma...

Alcohol
Tobacco
Caustic injury
Achlasia (damage to nerves in oesoph)

26

What can patients with oesophogeal cancer develop?

Chest infections

27

Name the late symptoms of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma...

Dysphagia
Weight loss
Haemorrahge
Sepsis
Resipratory fistula with aspiration

28

Define adenocarcinoma...

Cancer developing from a gland

29

What is oesophageal adenocarcinoma largely caused by?

Dysplastic changes in BO

30

How does oesophageal carcinoma sprerad?

Direct (quickly to surrounding tissues)
Lymphatics
Haematogenous (via blood)

31

Adenocarcinoma stomach makes up
A: 50%
B: 90%
C: 5%
Of gastric malignancies

B

32

Pernicious anemia
Intestinal metplasia
Neoplastic polyps
Helicobacter associated gastritis
are...

Precursor lesions
*Change in the appearance or nature of a cell before it becomes cancerous*

33

Early symptoms of adenocarcinoma stomach can often be mistaken for...

Gastritis

34

Advance symptoms of adenocarcinoma stomach are...

Weight loss
Anaemia
Anorexia
Haemorrhage

35

How does adenocarcinoma spread?

Direct
Lymphatics (virchows node= inflamm)
Haematogenous
Transcolemic
Omentum
Mesentry
Ovary

36

Define neoplasia...

The presence or formation of new abnormal growth or tissue

37

Name the different types of small bowel neoplasia...

Adenocarcinoma (rare)
GI stromal tumor
Lymphoma
Carcinoid tumour

38

Name the risk factors for small bowel neoplasia...

Crohns disease
Coeliac disease
Radiation expsoure
Hereditary

39

Define coeliac disease...

Extensive mucosal disease disease related to sensitivity to gluten

40

Is coeliac disease an autoimmune disease?

Yes

41

How can coeliac disease be diagnosed?

Biopsy
Blood test (TTG)

42

Coeliac disease can lead to...

Adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small bowel

43

-Anaemia
-Fatigue
-Failure to thrive (kids)
-Chronic
-Constipation/diarrhoea
-Pain and discomfort of the digestive track
Are symptoms of...

Coeliac disease