Thrombosis and embolism Flashcards Preview

Pathology (m) > Thrombosis and embolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thrombosis and embolism Deck (27):
1

Define thrombosis...

A solid or semi-solid mass from the constituents of blood while moving in the vascular system

2

Where can thrombi form?

Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Lumen of heart

3

Thrombi in the veins can cause...

Oedema

4

Thrombi in the arteries can cause...

Ischaemia or embolism

5

Thrombi in the capillaries can cause...

Scattered ischaemic lesions

6

What could trigger thrombi in the capillaries?

Infections
Septicemia
Malaria
Neoplasms
Liver disease

7

Factors that promote thrombosis are...

Abnormalities of
Vessel wall, blood flow and blood constituents

8

What causes abnormalities of the vessel wall in the arteries?

Atheroma

9

What causes abnormalities of the vessel wall in the heart?

Myo infarc
Rheumatic endocarditis

10

What causes abnormalities of the vessel wall in the veins?

Trauma
Inflammation
Chemicals e.g. glucose in diabetes

11

What causes abnormalities of the vessel wall in capillaries?

Inflammation

12

What are abnormalities of blood flow in the arteries?

Turbulence (anurysms/plaques/spasm)

13

What are abnormalities of blood flow in the heart?

Atrial fib
Anurysm

14

What are abnormalities of blood flow in the vein?

Local prob (compression/inactivity)
General prob (heart failure/circulatory shock)

15

What are abnormalities of blood constituents?

Increased viscosity
Hyperproteinaemia
Abnormalities of clotting

16

3 fates of blood clots are...

Resolution
Organisation
Detachment

17

Resolution means...

Fibrinolyisis occurs

18

Detachment means...

Thromboembolism occurs

19

Define embolism...

The transport of abnormal material by the blood stream and its impact on bv

20

Types of emboli are...

Thrombi
Fat
Gas
Tumour matieral
Infective agents
Atheroma
Amniotic fluid
Foreign bodies

21

What can cause hypovaelemic shock?

Haemorrhage
Severe burns

22

What can cause cardiogenic shock?

Large acute myo infarct
Other acute cardiac diseases

23

What can cause septic shock?

Endotoxins from gram +/- bacteria

24

What can cause anaphylactic shock?

Severe allergic reactions

25

What can cause neurogenic shock?

Spinal cord trauma
Regional anaesthesia

26

What can cause obstructive shock?

Cardiac tamponade
Tension pneumothorax
Massive pulmonary embolism

27

Name the clinical features of shock...

Low bp
Tachycardia
High or low rests
Low u/o
Metabolic acidosis
Hypoxia
Vasoconstriction/dilation
Anxiety/agitation/indifference/lethargy/obtunded