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Pathology (m) > Female repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female repro Deck (56):
1

Common presenting complaints are... (4)

Vaginal bleeding
Pain
Discharge
Infertility

2

Cervical screening takes a sample of cells from the...

Endocervix

3

What age does cervical screening start?

25

4

Up until you are 49 years of age how often do cervical screenings occur?

3 years

5

Once you are over 49 how often do cervical screenings occur?

5 years

6

What is the aim of cervical screening?

To detect disease in the early stages before it becomes invasive

7

What are a vast amount of cervical carcinomas caused by?

HPV

8

What does HPV stand for?

Human papilloma virus

9

How is HPV contracted?

Sexually

10

Low risk HPV can be...

Warts/verrucas

11

What is HPV thought to be the main cause of?

CIN (cervical invasive carcinoma)

12

Dyskariosis means...

Abnormal cytologic changes (usually categorised into 3 stages)

13

If there are abnormalities in the cervical screening, what are people referred to?

Colposcopy

14

CIN I/II/II are microscopic lesions that affect the cervix and if...

Left untreated could potentially develop into cervical cancer

15

Risk factors of cervical cancer...

HPV
Smoking
Not attending CSP

16

Symptoms of cervical cancer...

Discharge
Bleeding

17

Treatment of cervical cancer...

Hysterectomy
Chemoradiotherapy

18

Symptoms of endocervical polyps...

Irregular vaginal bleeding and spotting

19

Endocervical polyps can be removed via...

Hysteroscopy

20

Endocervical polyps are benign lesions...
TRUE OR FALSE

TRUE

21

Menorrhagia is what?

Heavy periods

22

What amount of blood loss is considered menorrhagia?

80ml+

23

What does menorrhagia cause?

DUB
Fibroids
Endometriosis
Polyps

24

Name treatments of menorrhagia...

Mirena coil
Mefanamic and tranexamic acid
COCP
Depo provera
Endometrial ablation
Hysterectomy

25

Fibroids are common what?

Benign tumours

26

Which part of the female repro do fibroids originate from?

Myometrium

27

Symptoms fibroids...

Heavy/painful periods
Pelvic pain
Distension

28

Endometritis and PID are mainly caused by...

Usually sexually transmitted infection

29

What symptoms can endometritis and PID present...

Abdominal discharge, pain or bleeding (can be asymptomatic)

30

Endometritis and PID are NOT major causes of infertility...
TRUE or FALE

False

31

Define endometriosis...

Endometrial tissue outside the endometrium

32

Symptoms of endometriosis...

Painful periods
Pelvic periods
Painful sex

33

Treatment of endometriosis...

COCP
Mirena
Zoladex
Surgery

34

Where do endometrial polyps originate from...

Endometrial cavity

35

How can endometrial polyps be removed?

Can be removed at hysteroscopy

36

Endometrial cancer is cancer of...

The lining of the uterus

37

How is endometrial cancer diagnosed...

Via biopsy

38

Risk factors of endometrial cancer...

Nulliparity (not had kids)
High BMI
HRT
Late menopause

39

People with endometrial cancer usually undergo...

TAH (Total abdominal hysterectomy)
BSO (Bilateral salpingo oophrectomy)

40

What does endometrial carcinoma usually present as?

Post menopausal bleeding

41

Risk factor of endometrial carcinoma...

Obesity
Oestrogen exposure

42

Treatment of endometrial carcinoma...

Hysterectomy

43

3 types of ovarian cysts...

Follicular cysts
Cystadenomas
Benign mature teratomas

44

Define cancer...

Any malignant tumour

45

Define carcinoma...

A malignant tissue of epithelial tissue

46

Which ovarian cyst is filled with a solid substance?

Benign mature teratomas

47

Which ovarian cysts are large and fluid filled?

Cystadenomas

48

Which ovarian cysts are benign and very common...

Follicular cysts

49

Define polycystic ovarian syndrome...

Multiple follicular cysts on ovary

50

Symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome...

Irregular periods
No periods
Infertility

51

Treatments of polycystic ovarian syndromes...

COCP
Metformin
Clomifene

52

Complications of the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndromes...

Increased CV risk
Increased risk T2DM
Increased problems and pregnancy

53

Name the 4 origins of where ovarian cysts arise from...

Surface epithelial cells
Germ cells
Sex-cord stroma
Metastasis

54

Ovarian cysts can be _____ or _______

Benign
Malignant

55

Miscarriage occurs mainly in the...

1st 12 weeks

56

On blood tests what would indicate ectopic pregnancy...

Raised beta HCG levels