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Flashcards in Immunity and disease Deck (44):
1

What is immunity?

Protection against bacteria, fungi and virus

2

What does the immune system do?

Distinguishes non-self molecules from self ones

3

Name the 2 main pathways...

Innate
Adaptive

4

Give examples of innate immunity defence mechanisms?

Skin
Mucosa
Phagocytic cells
Inflam
Fever

5

Name non-specific defences...

Intact skin
Muscosa
Cillia

6

The outer layer of the skin acts as a...

Mechanical barrier

7

What contains anti-microbal chemicals on our skin?

Sweat and oils

8

What do interferon proteins do?

Inhibit the replication of viruses

9

What do granulocytes do in phagocytosis?

Remove dead cells and microorganisms

10

WBC are attracted to the site how?

From inflammatory response of damaged cells

11

Macrophages also help in phagocytosis, true or false?

True

12

Name the non-specific responses to infection...

Fever
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Acute phase proteins released from liver

13

Why does a raised temp try to protect us?

Because most bacteria grows below body temp

14

Why are acute phased proteins released from liver?

To bind to bacteria and activate complement proteins

15

What protein signals to macrophages releasE?

Interleukin 1 & 6

16

Where are lymphocytes produced?

Bone marrow

17

When B&T cells mature they circulate where?

Blood and lymph

18

Why is it beneficial for B&T cells to be in circulation?

So they come into contact with pathogens & each other

19

Where do B cells mature?

Bone marrow

20

What do B cells do?

Secrete anti-bodies

21

Which cell is involved in humoral immunity?

B

22

Which cell is involved in cell-mediated immunity?

T

23

What do cytotoxic T cells do?

Seek out and destroy any antigens in the system (some can target cancer cells)

24

What to helper T cells do?

Stimulate B cells to produce antibodies
Activate cytotoxic T cells and macrophages to attack infected cells

25

How do T cells recognise an invader?

Macrophage identifies a non-self protein first and takes it to helper T cell and if helper T cell knows its not self, immune response is launched (see diagram)

26

HIV destroys what?

Helper T cells- immune response therefore poor

27

B cells differentiate into what?

Plasma cells that produce antibodies
Memory cells e.g. chicken pox

28

Immunodeficiency means people are...

Prone to infections

29

Over reactive immune systems lead to...

Hypersensitivity reactions

30

Failure to recognise self leads to...

Auto-immune diseases

31

What can cause immunodeficiency?

HIV
Chemo/drugs
Splenectomy
Bone marrow dysfunction

32

What can cause hyperactivity?

Allergy
Auto-immunity
Overreaction to pathogen

33

Which cells does HIV affect?

CD4 +T

34

What are the HIV stages of progression?

Infection
Latency
Aids

35

Define secondary immunodeficiency...

Caused by outside factors e.g. HIV/chemo

36

Causes of secondary immunodeficiency?

Malnutrition
Burns
Uremia
Diabetes mellitus
Immunotoxic meds
AIDS
Alcohol/self med of recreational drugs

37

Over reaction to a pathogen is called...

Systematic inflammatory response syndrome

38

Examples of hypersensitivity

Asthma
Hay fever
Peanut allergy

39

Examples of autoimmune diseases

Diabetes
MS
Coeliac disease
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

40

How can we manipulate the immune system?

Organ transplant
Vaccine

41

E.g. of live vaccine (live weakened pathogen)

MMR

42

E.g. of inactivated vaccine (inactive part of pathogen)

Hep B

43

E.g. of toxoid vaccine (bacterial toxin)

Diptheria

44

E.g. of conjugated vaccine (antigen linked to protein carrier)

Pneumococcal