Acute inflammation 1-2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Acute inflammation 1-2 Deck (38):
1

Acute inflammation

Basic response which sorts out vertebrates and protects tissue in response to injury

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Rubor

redness

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Tumour

swelling

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Calor

Heat

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Dolor

pain

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Causes/aetiology

- Microorganism (bacteria, fungi, parasite, virus)
- Mechanical (trauma or injury)
- Chemical ( upset environment pH, bile, urine)
- Physical ( Heat, cold, radiation)
- Dead tissue ( necrosis)
- Hypersensitivity

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Exudate

Fluid rich in protein including Ig and fibrinogen
Oedema formation ( fluid in extravascular space)
Change in permeability of vessel wall

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Triple response

1 - Flush, transient arteriolar constriction
2 - Flare, local dilation - active hyperaemia
3 - Wheal, relax smooth muscle

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Stasis

Rate of flow slows - change in flow characteristics

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Increased permeability

Plasma from capillaries to extravascular space

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Normal laminar flow

WBC - RBC - PLASMA

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Flow in inflammation

WBC pushed to endothelium and RBC congregate in the centre ( rouleax formation)

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Marginated neutrophils

Neutrophils move to near endothelium

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Pavementing

Neutrophils adhere to the endothelium

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Emigration

Neutrophils squeeze between endothelial cells

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Diapedesis

RBC squeezed out of vessel and go anywhere

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Resolution of acute inflammation

Agent isolated and destroyed
Macrophage from blood move in and phagocytose debris
Exudate filtered and regenerate epithelial surface
Vascular change to normal - Resolution

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What do neutrophils do for macrophage

Destroy organism and denature antigen for macrophage

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What part do plasma proteins play

Localise the response

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4 Outcomes of acute inflammation

- Resolution
- Suppuration
- Organisation
- Chronic Inflammation

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What are neutrophils job (4)

- Mobile and adhere to organism by chemotaxis
- Granules posses oxidants and enzymes
- Phagocytose and destroy foreign bodies
- Die after granule response ==> Pus formed

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Fibrinogen

Coagulation factor which forms fibrin and clots exudate

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Immunoglobulin

Specific for antigen and involved in humoral immune response

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3 mediators of acute inflammation

Molecules on endothelial cell surface
Molecules released from cells eg histamine, serotonin
Molecules in the plasma

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Effects of mediators

- vasodilation
- pain
- itch
- chemotaxis
- increased permeability
- neutrophil adhesion eg p selectin

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Histamine

Released by IgE mediated reactions causing increased permeability and vasodilation and preformed in mast cells

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Serotonin

Preformed in platelets - released when these degranulate and cause vasoconstriction

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Prostaglandins

Promote histamine effects

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Plasma 4 cascades

- Complement - inflammation and immune system link
- Kinin system - bradykinin = pain
- Fibrinolysis - breaks down fibrin
- Blood coagulation - clots fibrinogen in exudate

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Suppuration - pus formation

Dead tissue, exudate, neutrophil, fibrin, red cells surrounded by a pyogenic membrane

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Abscess

Collection of pus under pressure and can be single or multi loculated - burst through pyogenic membrane

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Empysema

Pus in other places - hollow, delocalised area

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Pyaemia

Discharge of Pus in the blood

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Organisation

Granulation tissue - heal and repair
Fibrosis = scar formation

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4 things needed for repair

Angiogenesis, collagen + fibroblast and macrophage

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Bacteraemia

Bacteria in the blood

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Septicaemia

Growth of bacteria in the blood

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Toxeamia

Toxin production in the blood