Tumour Pathology 1-3 Flashcards Preview

Principles of disease JK > Tumour Pathology 1-3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 1-3 Deck (34):
1

Tumour

A mass lesion capable of autonomous growth

2

High => low 5 year survival rates

Melanoma, breast, prostate, colon, lung

3

Name the 6 tissues for tumours

Blood, epithelium, connective tissue, lymphoid tissue, neural tissue, germ cell

4

Malignant

Capsule absent and invasive
Poorly differentiated and will spread
Loss of function

5

Benign

Capsule present and does not spread - rare death

6

Epithelium tumour

GLANDULAR - Adenoma or adenocarcinoma
SQUAMOUS- squamous papilloma or squamous carcinoma

7

Connective tissue

BONE - Osteoma or osteosarcoma
FAT - lipoma or liposarcoma
FIBROUS TISSUE - Fibroma or fibrosarcoma

8

White blood cell tumour

Leukaemia

9

Lymphoid tissue

Lymphoma

10

Neural tissue

CNS - Astrocytoma
PNS - Schawannoma

11

Germ cell

Teratoma - ovarian benign testicular malignant

12

Cancer cells altered genetics

Lose tumour suppressor genes and gain function of oncogenes

13

Cancer altered cellular function

Tumour related proteins - biomarkers
Lose cell to cell adhesion
Altered cell matrix adhesion

14

Tumour related proteins

Oncofetal proteins
Oncogenes
Growth factors and receptors

15

What are tumour related proteins used for

- screening
- diagnosis
- prognosis

16

Alpha fetoprotein

Teratoma of testis and liver cell

17

CEA

Colorectal cancer

18

Kras

colorectal cancer mutated = uneffective drug

19

EGFR

Lung cancer mutated = effective drug

20

Braf

Skin cancer

21

Her2

Breast and gastric cancer

22

Pleomorphism

Cancer cells abnormal in size and shape and also their mitoses

23

Angiogenesis

New blood vessel formation by tumours and allow for spread

24

Apoptosis

Key to balance growth by angiogenesis and involved in response to chemotherapy

25

What is metastasis related to

Tumour and tissue related factors

26

Blood spread

Adhere to blood vessel

27

Lymphatic spread

Adhere to lymph vessel and invade lymph node which acts as clinical evidence

28

Trans-coelomic spread

Across body cavities

29

Common sites of metastasis

Liver, lung, brain, axial skeleton and adrenals

30

Uncommon sites of metastasis

Spleen, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle

31

Local effect of benign tumour

Pressure and Obstruction

32

Local effects of malignant tumours

Pain (bone and nerve), obstruction, bleeding, tissue destruction and mucosal ulcers

33

Systemic effects of malignant tumours

- secretion of normal/abnormal hormones
- paraneoplastic syndrome - immune mechanism

34

Dysplasia

Pre malignant cells that change in some parts of the body look like cancer cells but no invasion eg cervix, bowel, breast and is the earliest visible change