Principles of immunisation Flashcards Preview

Principles of disease JK > Principles of immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of immunisation Deck (17):
1

Human normal immunoglobulin

Contains all antibodies from unselected pool of random blood donors eg measles, polio, Hep A

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Human, specific immunoglobulin

Blood donors have high antibody level against target organism eg Hep B, tetanus

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Passive immunity

No long term effect as no memory but provides instant protection

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Active immunity

Antigen stimulates response and memory created

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Antibody response with successive occurences

IgM first then IgG - next time a quick response due to IgG

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Vaccination

The administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen

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Temporary constraints

Febrile illness
Pregnancy - cannot be given live attenuated vaccines

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Permanent constraints

Allergic or immunocompromised

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Live attenuated

Still alive but reduced virulence although can mutate back eg MMR

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Killed

Killed with formaldehyde and needs boosters as is a weaker response eg rabies, Hep A

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Acellular vaccines

Use antigen and suitable for immunocompromised

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Toxoid vaccines

Bacterial toxin treated with formalin eg tetanus

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Subunit vaccine

Use epitope not the whole antigen

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Conjugate vaccine

Link antigen to the polysaccharide so does not evade immune system eg HPV, Hep B

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DNA vaccine

Use DNA only and cells make antigens

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Adjuvant

A substance which enhances the body's immune response to the antigen eg aluminium salts

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Herd immunity

Reduce risk of people who cannot receive vaccine becoming infected as reduces risk of exposure