Flashcards in Adaptations, Injury Death Deck (85)
What are the three permanent tissues?
Which parts of the cytoskeleton are ubiquitinated during apoptosis?
What vitamin is necessary for the differentiation of epithelial cells?
What is myositis ossificans?
trauma causes skeletal muscle to convert into bone
What is the treatment for methemoglobinemia?
What two ions build up in the cell during hypoxia?
Na+ and Ca2+
What is the hallmark of irreversible injury? Reversible?
What is the hallmark of cell death?
loss of nucleus
What is pyknosis?
What is karyorrhexis?
What is karyolysis?
Which organs undergo coagulative necrosis?
all except brain
What are the macrophages of the brain?
What organ undergoes coagulative necrosis?
What ion is consumed during fat necrosis? What is this process called?
What is the difference between dystrophic and metastatic calcification?
metastic occurs during periods of high calcium levels or phosphate levels
What molecule provides the energy for apoptosis?
What is the function of bcl-2?
prevent cytochrome c leaking from mitochondria
Is cytochrome C located in the inner or outer mitochondrial matrix?
What CD molecule is the Fas Receptor?
What molecule directly activates caspases? What cell secretes this molecule?
What free radical does radiation produce?
hydroxyl free radical
What free radical is produced by NADPH Oxidase?
Which three vitamins are anti-oxidants?
Vitamin A, C and E
What reaction is catalyzed by Superoxide Dismutase?
Superoxide into H2O2
What is CCl4 converted to? By what enzyme?
What does carbon tetrachloride produce in hepatocytes? Why?
lack of Apolipoprotein synthesis leads to fatty accumulation in the cell
What causes an increase in cardiac enzymes following the re-establishment of blood flow?
What is the stain for amyloidosis?
What is the common secondary structure for amyloid deposits?
What protein is found during Primary Amyloidosis? What is this protein derived from?
immunoglobulin light chain
Which amyloid deposits during Secondary Amyloidosis?
What protein is AA amyloid derived from?
serum amyloid-associated protein (SAA)
What type of protein is SAA?
acute phase reactant
What rare disease is SAA increased when there isn't chronic inflammation?
Familial Mediterranean Fever
What are the two presentations of Familial Mediterranean Fever?
What three conditions can FMF mimmic?
What is the most common organ involved during amyloidosis?
What happens to the kidney during amyloidosis?
What type of myopathy takes place during amyloidosis?
What three organs are enlarged during amyloidosis?
tongue and hepatosplenomagelys
What protein deposits in the heart during Senile Cardiac Amyloidosis?
non-mutated serum transthyretin
What protein deposits during Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy? Does this cause disease?
mutated serum transthyreitin
What protein deposits in the pancreas during T2DM? What is this protein derived from? Where in the pancreas?
Which chromosome is β-amyloid precursor protein found?
What type of protein deposits during dialysis? Where?
Tumor cells in an amyloid background is indicative of what disease? What makes up the amyloid?
Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid
What always follows necrosis?
What cell mediates liquefactive necrosis in an abscess?
What type of necrosis is gangrenous necrosis?
Where are the two locations of gangrenous necrosis?
lower limb and GI tract
What are the two causes of caseous necrosis?
TB or fungal infection
What is Saponification?
when calcium deposits on dead tissues
Metastatic calcification requires which two electrolytes to be high?
calcium or phosphate
What type of necrosis would be present in a pregnant 30 year old woman? Where? Why?
Which MHC isoform is present on platelets?
How does TNF promote apoptosis?
Fenton Rxn produces what free radical?
hydroxyl free radical
Which secondary structure does amyloid assume?
Does amyloid deposit extracellular or intracellular?
What composes AL light chain?
immunoglobulin light chain
Which cell is dysfunctional during Familial Mediterranean Fever?
Why can FMF produce arthritis?
conversion of SAA into AA that can deposit into tissues
Why can amyloidosis result in malabsorption?
wall of bowel thickened
What are two common sites for a biopsy to Dx amyloidosis?
adominal fat pad and rectum
5% of what race carries the gene for Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy?
β2-Microglobulin is found in what other protein?
What protein is not filtered well from the blood?
What is the one specific cause of fibrinoid necrosis and non-specific cause of fibrinoid necrosis?
malignant HTN = specific
vasculitis = non-specific
What is metaplasia?
change in cell type
What mechanism decreases cell size?
What mechanism decreases cell number?
What type of epithelial cell is in the stomach?
What mechanisms is responsible for metaplasia?
Reprogramming of stem cells
Does apocrine metaplasia increase the risk for breast cancer?
Is SaO2 increased or decreased during CO poisoning?
What are the two main cellular manifestations of cellular swelling?
loss of microville
Are dissociation of ribosomes reversible or irreversible?
Is the electron transport chain on the inner or outer mitochondrial membrane?
What is the most damaging free radical?
What do free radicals due to lipids?
Which two metal carrying proteins can act as anti-oxidants?
transferrin and ceruloplasmin
Wha free radical does glutathione peroxidase handle?
Does amyloid like blood vessels?