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Flashcards in Adaptations, Injury Death Deck (85)
1

What are the three permanent tissues?

cardiac

skeletal

nerve

2

Which parts of the cytoskeleton are ubiquitinated during apoptosis?

intermediate filaments

3

What vitamin is necessary for the differentiation of epithelial cells?

Vitamin A

4

What is myositis ossificans?

trauma causes skeletal muscle to convert into bone

5

What is the treatment for methemoglobinemia?

methylene blue

6

What two ions build up in the cell during hypoxia?

Na+ and Ca2+

7

What is the hallmark of irreversible injury? Reversible?

membrane damage

8

What is the hallmark of cell death?

loss of nucleus

9

What is pyknosis?

nuclear condensation

10

What is karyorrhexis?

nuclear fragmentation

11

What is karyolysis?

nuclear dissolution

12

Which organs undergo coagulative necrosis?

all except brain

13

What are the macrophages of the brain?

microglia

14

What organ undergoes coagulative necrosis?

lung

15

What ion is consumed during fat necrosis? What is this process called?

calcium

Soaponification

16

What is the difference between dystrophic and metastatic calcification?

metastic occurs during periods of high calcium levels or phosphate levels

17

What molecule provides the energy for apoptosis?

ATP

18

What is the function of bcl-2?

prevent cytochrome c leaking from mitochondria

19

Is cytochrome C located in the inner or outer mitochondrial matrix?

inner

20

What CD molecule is the Fas Receptor?

CD95

21

What molecule directly activates caspases? What cell secretes this molecule?

Granzyme

CD8+ T-cells

22

What free radical does radiation produce?

hydroxyl free radical

23

What free radical is produced by NADPH Oxidase?

superoxide

24

Which three vitamins are anti-oxidants?

Vitamin A, C and E

25

What reaction is catalyzed by Superoxide Dismutase?

Superoxide into H2O2

26

What is CCl4 converted to? By what enzyme?

chloroform

p450

27

What does carbon tetrachloride produce in hepatocytes? Why?

fatty change

lack of Apolipoprotein synthesis leads to fatty accumulation in the cell

28

What causes an increase in cardiac enzymes following the re-establishment of blood flow?

repurfusion

29

What is the stain for amyloidosis?

congo red

30

What is the common secondary structure for amyloid deposits?

β-sheets

31

What protein is found during Primary Amyloidosis? What is this protein derived from?

AL amyloid

immunoglobulin light chain

32

Which amyloid deposits during Secondary Amyloidosis?

AA amyloid

33

What protein is AA amyloid derived from?

serum amyloid-associated protein (SAA)

34

What type of protein is SAA?

acute phase reactant

35

What rare disease is SAA increased when there isn't chronic inflammation?

Familial Mediterranean Fever

36

What are the two presentations of Familial Mediterranean Fever?

fever

serosal inflammation

37

What three conditions can FMF mimmic?

appendicitis

arthritis

acute-MI

38

What is the most common organ involved during amyloidosis?

kidney

39

What happens to the kidney during amyloidosis?

nephrotic syndrome

40

What type of myopathy takes place during amyloidosis?

restrictive amyloidosis

41

What three organs are enlarged during amyloidosis?

tongue and hepatosplenomagelys

42

What protein deposits in the heart during Senile Cardiac Amyloidosis?

non-mutated serum transthyretin

43

What protein deposits during Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy? Does this cause disease?

mutated serum transthyreitin

yes

44

What protein deposits in the pancreas during T2DM? What is this protein derived from? Where in the pancreas?

amylin

insulin

pancreatic islets

45

Which chromosome is β-amyloid precursor protein found?

21

46

What type of protein deposits during dialysis? Where?

β2-macroglobulin

joints

47

Tumor cells in an amyloid background is indicative of what disease? What makes up the amyloid?

Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid

calcitonin

48

What always follows necrosis?

inflammation

49

What cell mediates liquefactive necrosis in an abscess?

neutrophils

50

What type of necrosis is gangrenous necrosis?

Coagulative

51

Where are the two locations of gangrenous necrosis?

lower limb and GI tract

52

What are the two causes of caseous necrosis?

TB or fungal infection

53

What is Saponification?

when calcium deposits on dead tissues

54

Metastatic calcification requires which two electrolytes to be high?

calcium or phosphate

55

What type of necrosis would be present in a pregnant 30 year old woman? Where? Why?

fibrinoid

placenta

pre-ecclampsia

56

Which MHC isoform is present on platelets?

MHC one

57

How does TNF promote apoptosis?

activates caspases

58

Fenton Rxn produces what free radical?

hydroxyl free radical

59

Which secondary structure does amyloid assume?

β-pleated

60

Does amyloid deposit extracellular or intracellular?

extracellular

61

What composes AL light chain?

immunoglobulin light chain

62

Which cell is dysfunctional during Familial Mediterranean Fever?

Neutrophil

63

Why can FMF produce arthritis?

conversion of SAA into AA that can deposit into tissues

64

Why can amyloidosis result in malabsorption?

wall of bowel thickened

65

What are two common sites for a biopsy to Dx amyloidosis?

adominal fat pad and rectum

66

5% of what race carries the gene for Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy?

African Americans

67

β2-Microglobulin is found in what other protein?

MHC one

68

What protein is not filtered well from the blood?

β2-Microglobulin

69

What is the one specific cause of fibrinoid necrosis and non-specific cause of fibrinoid necrosis?

malignant HTN = specific

vasculitis = non-specific

70

What is metaplasia?

change in cell type

71

What mechanism decreases cell size?

proteasome

72

What mechanism decreases cell number?

apoptosis

73

What type of epithelial cell is in the stomach?

columnar

74

What mechanisms is responsible for metaplasia?

Reprogramming of stem cells

75

Does apocrine metaplasia increase the risk for breast cancer?

no

76

Is SaO2 increased or decreased during CO poisoning?

decreased

77

What are the two main cellular manifestations of cellular swelling?

loss of microville

membrane blebbing

78

Are dissociation of ribosomes reversible or irreversible?

irreversible

79

Is the electron transport chain on the inner or outer mitochondrial membrane?

inner

80

What is the most damaging free radical?

hydroxyl

81

What do free radicals due to lipids?

peroxidation

82

Which two metal carrying proteins can act as anti-oxidants?

transferrin and ceruloplasmin

83

Wha free radical does glutathione peroxidase handle?

hydroxyl

84

Does amyloid like blood vessels?

yes

85

Is amyloidosis seen during type one or type two diabetes?

type two