Flashcards in Inflammation/Wound Healing Deck (247)
Which cells of the immune system has cells with TLRs? Adaptive?
innate = macrophages and dendritic
adaptive = lymphocytes
What activates TLRs?
What is the CD molecule of macrophages?
What molecule does CD14 recognize?
TLR activation activates which txn factor?
What class of molecules does cycloxygenase produce?
What class of molecules does 5-lipoxygenase produce?
What are the three main prostaglandins produced from cycloxygenase? What two effects do these prostaglandins mediate?
vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
What prostaglandin mediates fever and pain?
Which leukotriene attracts neutrophils?
What three effects are mediated by C4, D4 and E4?
increased vascular permeability
Which two complement proteins can activate mast cells?
C3a and C5a
Which immunoglobulin can crosslink to activate mast cells?
Do mast cells release leukotrienes or prostaglandins?
In the classical complement pathway, which two proteins activate C1?
IgG and IgM
Which ligand on bacteria can a complement protein bind? Which complement protein?
What protein do the classical and alternative complement activation pathways meet at?
Which proteins are contained within the MAC? Which C5?
Which complement protein is a chemoattractant for neutrophils?
Which complement protein is an opsonin?
What is another name for Factor Twelve? What activates this factor?
Which complement protein activates the Kinin system?
What is another name for redness?
What is another name for warmth?
Which molecule produces endothelial cell contraction?
What are the two mediators of pain?
bradykinin and PGE2
Which molecule from bacteria mediates fever?
Pyrogens from bacteria cause WHAT CELL to release which two mediators to produce fever?
TNF and IL1
Which cells of the hypothalamus contain cycloxygenase? Which prostaglandin activates them?
Which molecule mediates the release of P-selectin from WP bodies?
Which two proteins mediate the increase in E-selectin?
TNF and IL-1
Which protein do selectins BIND on inflammatory cells? What cell type is this protein found?
sialyl Lewis X
What cells express ICAM and VCAM?
Which two cytokines upregulate ICAM and VCAM?
TNF and IL1
Which cells express integrins?
Which two cytokines upregulate integrins?
C5a and LTB4
What general class of protein is deficient Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency? Leukocyte adhesion deficiency would possess a lack of what CD molecule?
Which interleukin is responsible for macrophage mediated recruitment of neutrophils?
Which complement protein is responsible for neutrophil attraction?
Which leukotriene is responsible for neutrophil attraction?
What are the two main opsonins?
IgG and C3b
What is defective during Chediak-Higashi syndrome? Involving what protein?
protein trafficking deficiency
The formation of what intracellular organelle is impaired during Chediak-Higashi Syndrome?
Would Chediak-Higashi Syndrome result in neutropenia or neutrophilia?
What would be seen inside the leukocytes during Chediak-Higashi Syndrome? From which organelle?
fusion of giant granules
What hematological defect is present duringChediak-Higashi Syndrome? Why?
defective platelet function
abnormal dense granules in platelets
What would be obvious during Chediak-Higashi Syndrome on physical exam? Why?
melanocytes cant disperse melanin
Other than albinism, what is the 2nd most common presenting symptom of Chediak Higashi syndrome?
peripheral neuropathy of DISTAL limbs
Which free radical is created by NADPH Oxidase?
What rxn is catalyzed by Superoxide Dismutase?
superoxide to H2O2
What rxn is catalyzed by Myeloperoxidase?
H2O2 to HOCl
What enzyme is often absent during Chronic Granulomatous Disease?
Organisms possessing what enzyme are often the culprits for infection during Chronic Granulomatous Disease?
What is the mnemonic to remember the catalase positive organisms?
What is the P of PLACESS? Specific species?
species = cepacia
What is the L of PLACESS?
What is the A of PLACESS?
What is the C of PLACESS?
What is the E of PLACESS?
What are the S's of PLACESS?
What stain is used to screen for CGD?
What is the anti-inflammatory interleukin?
What is the anti-inflammatory cytokine?
Which two immune cells are indicative of chronic inflammation?
lymphocytes and plasma cells
What two proteins compose the TCR Complex?
TCR and CD3
Regarding T-cell activation, what protein is on the APC? What protein is on the CD4 cells?
CD4 = CD28
APC = B7
Would IFN-γ be indicative of a TH1 or TH2 response?
What are the two functions of IFN-γ?
IgM to IgG switching
Which three interleukins does TH2 secrete?
What is the function of IL4?
isotype switch to IgE
What are the two functions of IL5?
isotype switching to IgA
What is the function of IL13?
functions similar to IL4
What is the function of IL2?
2nd activation signal to CD8 T-cells
Which two immunoglobulins do naive B-cells express?
IgM and IgD
What metal is known to cause granulomatous inflammation?
Which infection can cause granulomatous inflammation?
Cat Scratch Fever
What two types of infections produce a caseating granuloma?
TB and fungal infections
What is the function of IL12?
induces CD4 cells to differentiate into TH1 subtype
What two metabolites build up in lymphocytes during SCID?
adenosine and deoxyadenosine
At what age would X-linked agammaglobulinemia present? Why?
mothers Ab's are protective until this point
What three infections often present during X-linked Agammaglobulinemia?
Which has a necrotic core, caseating or non-caseating?
What two diseases is a patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency at risk for developing?
What two proteins are defective during Hyper IgM Syndrome? What is the result of this?
CD40 and/or CD40L
B-cells cant undergo isotype switching
What is the triad of Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome?
What is the major cause of death in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome?
C5-C9 defects predispose an individual to develop infections with what bug?
Hereditary Angioedema is caused by a defect in what protein? Why are the findings produced?
C1 is constanly activating complement and activating
HMWK cleavage leading to bradykinin induced angioedema
AIRE mutations produce what sydrome? What is lost during this process?
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome is due to mutations in what protein?
Fas apoptosis pathway
CD25 Polymorphisms are associated with what two diseases?
FOXP3 mutations lead to what disease?
Which complement proteins are normally deficient in lupus? What is the function of these complement proteins?
clear antigen/antibody complexes
Which three early complement proteins are often deficient during SLE? What does this complex function as?
C1q, C2 and C4
Does lupus present with lymphadenopathy?
What vascular abnormality can lupus cause?
What is the most severe form of SLE induced renal injury/
Diffuse Proliferatvie Glomerulonephritis
What type of endocarditis does SLE produce? Which valve? Which side?
What are the two highly specific antibodies for lupus ?
What are three important anti-phospholipid antibodies produced during lupus?
anti-β2 glycoprotein I
Anti-cardiolipin can give a false positive when screening for what disease?
What condition is anti-coagulant antibody associated with?
Hypercoaguable with elevated aPTT
Drug induced lupus will have auto-antibodies produced against what antigen?
What three drugs clasically produce lupus?
What should pateints with lupus avoid?
What two glands are destroyed during Sjogrens Syndrome? What TYPE of hypersensitivity rxn?
lacrimal and salivary
What other disease is Sjogrens Syndrome likely to present with?
Which three auto-antibodies does Sjogrens Syndrome often present with?
What is the antigen for anti-SSA and anti-SSB?
Pregnant women with anti-SSA are at risk for delivering babies with what two conditions?
neonatal heart block
What biopsy on the body can aid in the diagnosis of Sjogrens Syndrome? Where?
What type of Lymphoma can Sjorens Syndrome produce? How does this present?
Marginal Zone Lymphoma
unilateral enlargement of the parotid
Which two organs undergo sclerosis during Systemic Sclerosis?
skin and visceral organs
Which autoantibodies present during CREST syndrome? Diffuse or limited?
Where does Limited Type systemic sclerosis present?
hands and face
What four organs does Diffuse Type systemic sclerosis present?
How does Diffuse Type systemic sclerosis present in the GI tract?
How does Diffuse Type systemic sclerosis present in the Lungs?
How does Diffuse Type systemic sclerosis present in the Vessels?
Which auto-antibody is often found during diffuse Systemic Sclerosis? What is the antigen for this AB?
DNA topoisomerase I
Which two autoantibodies are present during Mixed Connective Tissue Disorder?
What is the stem cell of the lung?
Type II pneumocytes
What structure are the stem cells of the GI tract contained?
What type of collagen is contained within fibroblasts?
What type of collagen is removed by collagenase? What is the cofactor for Collagenase?
What are the two growth factors for angiogenesis?
FGF and VEGF
What enzyme is copper a cofactor for?
What does lysyl oxidase connect?
lysine and hydroxylysine
What type of collagen does collagenase replace type III collagen with?
What type of collagen is found in keloids?
Which cell count can increase during an acute MI?
What type of molecule is CD14?
What molecule does CD14 recognize?
Leukotrienes cause which cells contract to increase vascular permeability?
What is the four ways to activate mast cells?
cross-linked IgE by antigens
What is the immediate response of mast cell activation?
release of preformed histamine
What is the maintenance response of mast cell activation?
synthesis of leukotrienes
What is the function of mast cells releasing leukotrienes?
potentiating acute inflammation
What is another name for swelling?
What is another name for warmth?
What structure mediates swelling?
By what mechanism do PGE2 and bradykinin produce pain?
sensitize nerve endings
Where does vasodilation occur?
What would be the first finding to arise due to Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency?
delayed sepration of the umbilical cord
Would Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency have an increased or decreased level of circulating Neutrophils? Why?
inability of neutrophils to 'hang' and be marginated in the lungs
What are the three chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils?
LTB4, IL8, C5a
MPO deficiency puts a patient at an increased risk for developing infections cause by what organism?
How do neutrophils clear from a tissue after an infection? Forming what?
Do macrophages rely more on oxygen dependent or oxygen independent killing? Via what enzyme?
What is the primary mechanism by which macrophages kill pathogens?
What interleukin is used to macrophages to recruit more neutrohils to a site of inflammation?
Which MHC molecule is located on platelets?
Do CD4 or CD8 cells express FasL?
What is the first mechanism by which B-cells become activated? What is the result of this?
antigen binds IgM or IgD on B-cells
turns B-cell into plasma cell
What is the second mechanism by which B-cells become activated?
CD40 of B-cell binds CD40L on helper T-cell
What is the key defining feature of a granuloma?
What two types of cells would an Epithelioid Histiocyte be surrounded by?
A stellate shaped granuloma is indicative of what disease?
Cat Scratch Fever
Would a TH1 or TH2 response generate a granuloma?
What is the main cytokine that drives the formation of Epithelioid Histiocytes?
What is the specific genetic mutation of DiGeorge Syndrome?
What two major presentations would a patient with DiGeorge Syndrome present with ?
What is the 2nd mechanism by which a SCID may develop, other than Adenosine Deaminase?
MHC Two dysfunction
What cellular maturation defect is present in X-linked Agammaglobulinemia?
B-cells cant mature into plasma cells
What enzyme is defective in X-linked Agammaglobulinemia?
Brutons Tyrosine Kinase
What infections are a patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency susceptible to?
Which cytokines would not be produced during Hyper IgM Syndrome? What type of infections? Where?
Where on the body would a patient with Hyper IgM Syndrome most likely get an infection?
What is the most often site of edema during C1 Inhibitor Deficiency?
What three condtions present in a apatient with Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome?
recurrent Candida infections
What CD molecule is the Fas receptor?
Fas (CD95) apoptosis pathway mutations result in what syndrome?
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
What are the three molecules of Tregs?
How do Tregs suppess autoimmunity?
block T-cell activation
What special regulatory protein do Tregs express?
What is the function of CTLA4? What can this lead to?
Which two anti-inflammatory cytokines can Tregs secrete?
Which CD molecule is the IL2 Receptor?
FOXP3 mutations are associated with what syndrome? What does this syndrome stand for?
According to Sattar, what is the reason women more often present with autoimmune disease?
estrogen reduce apoptosis of self-reactive Bcells
Regarding Early Complement, what is the function of C3B?
act as opsonin to clear Ag/Ab complex
What is the most common early complement protein whose deficiency can lead to lupus?
What type of hypersensitivity rxn would blood component problems be during Lupus?
Which anti-body can be used as a prognostic antibody and to follow the disease activity of lupus?
What are the two most common causes of death in lupus patients?
renal failure or infection
What are the three most typical presentations for Sjogrens Syndrome?
recurrent dental caries
An immune reaction against what type of tissue is believed to initiate Systemic Sclerosis?
Which two cell types are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis? Which vasoconstrictor?
mesenchyme and endothelial
What cell type can become activated during systemic sclerosis? What two cytokines are released?
TGF-β and PDGF
Which part of CREST is the first to appear in a patient with systemic sclerosis?
In what layer of the epidermis are the stem cells located?
Name two stable tissues?
What type of collagen is seen in granulation tissue?
TGF-α is an important growth factor for what two cell types?
epithelial and fibroblasts
TGF-β is an important growth factor for what two cell types?
PDGF is an important growth factor for what three tissues?
What is dehiscence?
rupture of a wound
Interactions between what two proteins cause leukocytes to adhere to endothelium?
Integrins and CAMs
What is CD18?
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is Sjogrens?
Which three inflammatory mediators mediate arteriolar smooth muscle contraction?
Which 3rd and 4th structure is absent during DiGeorge?
Which two viruses present during X-linked Agammaglobulinemia?
polio and coxsackie
What other autoimmune disease is most likely to present during Sjogrens?
What other autoimmune disease is Rheumatoid Factor present even though Rheumatoid Arthritis may not be present?
What gland is involved with Sjogrens Syndrome transformring into a lymphoma?
Where is LPS located on gram-negative proteins?
What is the relationship between Hagemann Factor and gram-negative bacteria?
What two proteins are contained in Weibel-Palade bodies?
Which species of Pseudomonas is mentioned as catalase positive?
What type of cell forms a rim around a granuloma?
Selective IgA Deficiency patients are at particular risk for what type of pathogen infection?
What disease is particularly common in patients with IgA Deficiency?
Which CD molecule mediates peripheral tolerance?
Which interleukin can limit MHC Two expression?
What is the trigger for lupus?
Can lupus cause pancytopenia? What type of hypersensitivity rxn?
Are CNS and renal involvement common on rare in drug induced lupus?
Within how long do neutrophils undergo apoptosis with a lack of inflammatory signal?
Mixed Connective Tissue has characteristics of which three diseases?
At what structure do prostaglandins mediate vasodilation?
At what structure do prostaglandins mediate increased vascular permeability?
Which activates the Alternative Complement pathway?
Which cells express selectins?
Why would Chediak-Higashi produce a defect in primary hemostasis?
defective dense granules in platelets
What is the mode of inheritance of Chediak Higashi?
Which stain to differentiate a TB in a TB vs. fungal caseating granuloma?
TB = AFP
Which stain to differentiate a Fungal in a TB vs. fungal caseating granuloma?
fungal = GMS
Which two specific types of Bcells are arrested in their growth during X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia?
Patients with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia will get what three type of infections?
Enterovirus (polio and coxsackie)
Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency will get what three type of infections?
Enterovirus (polio and coxsackie)
Is CD40 or CD40L on Tcells?
Is CD40 or CD40L on Bcells?
Where in the thymus does negative selection occur?
Where in the thymus does positive selection occur?
What kind of protein is AIRE? What is the function of AIRE?
transcribe self antigens
Which syndrome ensues if Fas Ligand is absent?
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
Other than HLAB27, what gene is implicated in many autoimmune disorders?
Can lupus cause pancytopenia?
Does PT or PTT get falsely elevated during lupus?
Which two organs are not affected by drug induced lupus?
CNS and renal
What does lupus do to CV System?
SSA and SSB are associated with what type of manifestation?
Which sjogren antibody can cross the placenta?
What is the most common cause of death in Diffuse Type Scleroderma?
What is the function of lysyl oxidase?
cross-link lysine and hydroxy-lysine