Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (163)
What is the most common cause of rhinitis?
What is a common cause of a nasal polyps in children? In adults?
children = Cystic fibrosis
adults = aspirin intolerant asthma
What is the triad of Aspirin-Resistant Asthma?
aspirin induced bronchospasm
What is an angiofibroma? What is an angiofibroma composed of?
benign tumor of nasal mucosa
blood vessels and fibrous tissue
What patient population is angiofibroma often seen?
What virus is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma? Which lymph nodes does the commonly involve?
Nasopharyngal carcinoma is classically seen in what two populations?
What are the two histological characteristics of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma seen on biopsy?
pleomorphic keratin positive epithelial cells
background of lymphocytes
What is the most common cause of epiglottitis? Immunized, nonimmunized or both?
H. influenzae Type B
What virus causes Croup?
What material composes a vocal cord nodule? Unilateral or bilateral? Why?
Which HPV isotypes would be found in Laryngeal Papilloma? How does this appear in adults? Children?
6 and 11
adults = single
children = multiple
Where does a Laryngeal Carcinoma usually arise from? Arise from laryngeal papilloma?
epithelial tissue of vocal cord
Which two bacteria make up the majority of Lobar Pneumonia? Which one is the stark majority?
Strep. pneumoniae (majority)
Which three bacterial Genus are most likely to cause Aspiration pneumonia?
What is Secondary Pneumoniae? Which bug is most likely to cause Secondary Pneumonia?
bacterial pneumonia superimposed on viral pneumonia
What is the most common mechanism by which Klebsiella pneumoniae can establish an infection in the lungs?
Which patient population is most likely to be affected by Klebsiella pneumoniae?
What bacteria is the 2nd most common cause of Secondary Pneumonia?
Patients with COPD are most likely to get pneumonia from what two bugs?
What bug causes pneumonia in CFTR patients?
Legionella pneumophilia requires what to infect people?
a water source
Which pneumonia causing bug can be visualized with a silver stain?
What bug is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia? In what two patient populations?
military recruits or college students
What bug is the second most common cause of atypical pneumonia in young adults?
Which virus is most common to cause viral pneumonia is a post-transplant patient?
Where are the two sources for coxiella?
ticks or cattle placenta
In what two patient populations does Coxiella cause pneumonia?
farmers or veterinarians
Which lobe does aspiration pneumonia most often effect?
Where is the specific part of the brain where TB accumulates?
base of brain in meninges
Where in the lung does secondary TB most often effect?
What are four sites of common TB systemic spread?
cervical lymph nodes
What hypertrophies during Chronic Bronchitis?
bronchial mucinous glands
What type of emphysema does smoking lead to? What lobe?
What type of emphysema does α1AT deficiency lead to? What part of the lung?
What is the normal α1AT allele? What is the mutant α1AT allele?
normal = PiMM
mutant = PiZZ
What three ILs do TH2 cytokines release during asthma?
What is the function of IL-4?
class type switch to IgE
What is the function of IL-5?
What is the function of IL-10?
inhibit TH1 response
Does the first exposure or re-exposure to antigens result in degranulation of mast cells? What is the first cytokine released?
Which leukotrienes are released during an asthma attack?
Which protein mediates most of the damage/inflammation during asthma? What cell releases this protein?
major basic protein
What is bronchiectasis?
permanent dilation of bronchioles and bronchi
What causes Bronchiectasis?
What type of specific lung pathology is caused by Cystic Fibrosis?
What type of lung pathology is caused by Kartagener Syndrome?
What protein is defective during Kartagener Syndrome?
What is dynein important for?
motion of cilia
What are the three physical manifestations of Kartagener Syndrome?
What type of lung pathology can be created by Aspergillus? In what two patient groups?
CF and asthmatics
Why can bronchiectasis produce amyloidosis?
What cytokine mediates the progression of pulmonary fibrosis?
What is pneumoconioses? What cell mediates this?
inhaled particles are engulfed by alveolar marophages and induce release of cytokines which mediate fibrosis
Is sarcoidosis a caseating or non-caseating granuloma?
What is the race of the classic person to present with sarcoidosis?
african american, female
Would sarcoidosis be a restrictive or obstructive disease?
What is the characteristic histological finding seen during Sarcoidosis?
What are the two classical lab findings during sarcoidosis?
What is the Tx for sarcoidosis?
Coal Workers Lung is associated with what other disease?
Does silicosis generally effect the upper lobe or lower lobe of the lung?
What disease does silicosis carry an increased risk for developing? Why?
silica impairs phagolysosome formation
Workers from what industry can present with berylliosis? What type of granuloma?
beryllium = non-caseating granuloma
What disease does berylliosis mimmic?
Does asbestos cause lung carcinoma or mesothelioma more often?
Asbestos Bodies contain what?
Primary Pulmonary HTN is clasically seen in what patient population?
young adult females
What gene can be implicated during Primary Pulmonary HTN? What is the result?
proliferation of smooth muscle
What are the three causes of Secondary Pulmonary HTN?
recurrent pulmonary embolism
What structure is damaged during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Would Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome feature exudate or transudate?
Which type of pneumocyte makes surfactant?
What is the main molecular component of surfactant?
What is another name for phosphatidylcholine regarding surfactant?
What ratio is used to screen for neonatal respiratory distress?
At what week of development does surfactant production begin? When is an adequate level reached?
28 = begin
34 = sufficient
What does the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio need to be to ensure adequate surfactant production?
What molecule increases the production of surfactant?
What molecule decreases the production of surfactant?
What keeps the PDA open? What causes a PDA to close?
open = hypoxemia
What are the two particularly mutagenic carcinogens regarding lung cancer?
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Radon is formed from the decay of what atom?
What are the two most common causes of a non-cancerous coin lesion in the lung?
Granuloma or Hamartoma
Which fungus is particularly notable for causing a lung granuloma? Where in the country can this be found?
What cell type does small cell lung cancer arise from? Also called?
Which are three PNPs of small cell lung cancer?
Eaton-Lambert Syndrome is associated with what specific lung cancer?
What two tissues compose a bronchial hamartoma? What often happens to this lesion?
lung tissue and cartilage
What are the two defining characteristics of squamous cell lung cancer on histology?
What hormone may squamous cell carcinoma produce? Leading to?
Is squamous cell carcinoma more common in males or females?
What two populations present with adenocarcinoma of the lung?
females and nonsmokers
Which lung cancer often arises in a peripheral location?
Does squamous cell cancer of the lung produce a central or peripheral lesion?
What type of lung cancer lacks any real defining characteristics on histology?
Large Cell Carcinoma
What is the definition for Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma?
columnar cells that grow along pre-existing bronchioles and alveoli
What type of lung cancer arises from Club/Clara cells?
Carcinoid tumors are derived from what cell?
What stain do carcinoid tumors stain for?
What structure does a Carcinoid tumor usually present as in the lung?
polyp in bronchus
What two organs most often metastasize to the lungs?
breast and colon
Does pleural involvement occur more often with squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the lung?
What are the three symptoms of Horner Syndrome?
What is the unique site of spread of lung cancer?
Which lung cancer encases the lung?
How does mesothelioma often present?
recurrent pleural effusion
Repeated bouts of rhinitis can give rise to what?
What are the two most common risk factors for a Laryngeal Carcinoma?
alcohol and tobacco
Is interstitial pneumonia most often caused by virus or bacteria?
What is a high-yield complication of Mycoplasma pneumonia infection?
autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Which specific lobe is most commonly affected during aspiration pneumonia?
right lower lobe
What are the two components of a Ghon complex?
fibrosis and calcification
Where in the brain can TB produce meningitis?
base of brain
What is the most common organ to be affected by spread of TB?
What is the first mechanism by which mast cells create inflammation? What is the 2nd phase?
1st = histamine
2nd = leukotrienes
What composes Charcot-Leyden crystals?
Major Basic Protein
Where in the lung does interstitial fibrosis most usually begin?
Is sarcoidosis caseating or noncaseating?
What does non-caseating mean?
all cells of granuloma are alive
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis features what two characteristics?
How many mm of Hg counts as pulmonary HTN?
25 mm Hg
What is a plexiform lesion? When is a plexiform lesion seen?
close group of capillaries
What patient population is most likely to present with pulmonary HTN?
Which pneumocytes get damaged during ARDS? Protein rich or poor fluid?
Type I and Type II
What are the two major complications of giving an infant with NRDS oxygen?
Which lung cancer is treated with surgery?
Which lung cancer is treated with chemotherapy?
What are the intercellular bridges of squamous cell carcinoma composed of?
If a lung cancer starts with an 'S', what are the three things it means?
Are small cell lung cancers poorly differentiated or well differentiated? Carcinoid tumors poorly differentiated or well differentiated?
small cell = poorly
carcinoid = well
What is the name of a tumor that arises in the apex of the lung?
What is Caplan Syndrome?
Rheumatoid Arthritis and coal workers pneumoconioses
What is another name for Croup?
Does Croup present with inspiratory or expiratory stridor?
What causes gray hepitization?
degradation of red cells within exudate
Which two bacteria like to superimpose on top of viral pneumonia?
Is Coxiella a rickettsial organism?
Would a positive PPD occur during primary or secondary TB?
What is the definition of bronchitis?
productive cough lasting three months over a two year period
What is the Reid Index?
thickness of mucus glands compared to bronchial wall thickness
Why does A1AT damage hepatocytes?
protein accumulation in ER
Are A1AT heterozygotes symptomatic?
What does IL10 due to TH2 cells? TH1?
What composes Curschmann Spirals?
Is dynein responsible for retrograde or anterograde?
What is ABPA?
allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
In what two groups is ABPA more common?
asthma or cystic fibrosis
Is sarcoidosis driven by CD4 or CD8 cells?
Which immune cell drives ARDS?
Which pneumonia causing bug is part of the enteric flora?
What is the timeframe for bronchitis?
at least three months for at least two years
What does the Reid Index have to be do diagnose bronchitis?
Which organelle does mis-folded A1AT get trapped?
PiMZ heterozygotes shouldnt do what?
Which lung disease can produce amyloidosis?
What is anthracosis?
build up of carbon in macrophages
What cancer does Berylliosis increase the risk of?
What autoimmune disease can sarcoidosis mimmic?
What is a common enzyme of all non-caseating granulomas?
Is BMPR2 activated or inactivated during pulmonary HTN?
What type of membrane for ARDS?