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Flashcards in Adrenal glands Deck (18)
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where do the adrenal glands sit

one sits on top of each of the kidneys


what are the different parts of the adrenal gland(from top to bottom)

capsule, cortex and medulla


what different parts is the adrenal cortex split up into

zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis


what type of hormone is the zona glomerulosa section of the adrenal cortex responsible for secreting

mineralocorticoids(eg aldosterone)


what type of hormone is the zona fasciculata section of the adrenal cortex responsible for secreting

glucocorticoids(eg cortisol, corticosterone)


what type of hormone is the zona reticularis section of the adrenal cortex responsible for secreting

adrenal androgens(eg DHEA, androstenedione)


what type of cells are found in the adrenal medulla and what type of hormones do they produce

chromaffin cells, produce catecholamines(eg adrenaline, noradrenaline)


what is the starting point/signal for production of hormones by the different parts of the adrenal cortex



what is the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of hormones by the adrenal cortex

uptake of cholesterol and conversion to pregnenolone(is then converted to many compound eventually hormones secreted)


what is cortisol and androgen production regulated by

hormones produced by hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
(HPA axis, HPA = hypothalamic pituitary adrenal)


what is aldosterone production regulated by

RAAS and plasma potassium


describe the HPA axis

hypothalamus secretes CRH(levels depend on illness, stress, time of day), acts on pituitary to secrete ACTH, acts on adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol


what are CRH and ACTH

CRH = corticotropin releasing hormone
ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone


what type of loop is seen in the HPA axis

negative feedback loop, high levels of cortisol inhibits CRH and ACTH release


describe the Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system(RAAS) regulation of aldosterone

activated in response to decreased BP, leads to production Ang II which directly(vasoconstriction0 increases BP and indirectly by stimulating aldosterone release from adrenal cortex(salt retention)


what are the 3 principal clinical uses of corticosteroids

suppress inflammation, suppress immune system, replacement treatment


where are mineralocorticoid receptors(MR) most prominently placed

mainly kidneys, also salivary glands, gut, sweat glands


what affects can aldosterone when acting on mineralocorticoid receptors(MR)

regulate Na/K balance(K+/H+ excretion and increase Na reabsorption), BP regulation, regulation of extracellular volume