Defects in Insulin secretion and action Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Defects in Insulin secretion and action Deck (14)
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1

what defect is seen in Type 1 diabetes

autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells

2

what defect is seen in Type 2 diabetes

beta cells try to compensate of hyperglycaemia caused by insulin resistance, so usually presents with hyperinsulinemia

3

what defect is seen in Gestational diabetes

declining beta cell function and associated with high risk of later T2DM

4

what defect is seen in Maturity onset diabetes of the young(MODY)

monogenic disease with some features of both type 1 and 2 diabetes, beta cell dysfunction but not autoimmune

5

what defect is seen in neonatal diabetes

monogenic diabetes caused by mutation in the glucose sensing mechanism

6

what 2 proteins do Katp channels consist of

Kir6 = an inward rectifier subunit
SUR1 = sulphonylurea receptor
(both required for normal function)

7

what defects can occur in the proteins of the Katp channel

Kir6 mutation can cause neonatal diabetes
Kir6 or SUR1 mutation can cause hyperinsulinemia

8

what drugs inhibit and stimulate Katp

inhibit = sulphonylureas
stimulate = diazoxide

9

how is glucokinase affected in MODY

glucokinase activity impaired, glucose sensing defect, blood glucose threshold for insulin secretion is increased

10

describe what insulin resistance means

this is when higher than normal levels of insulin are required to achieve insulin actions

11

how does insulin resistance primarily occur

through reduced insulin sensing and/or signalling

12

what is the most common cause/association of insulin resistance

obesity

13

what defect is seen in leprechaunism/Donohue syndrome

mutation in gene for insulin receptor, severe insulin resistance
(rare)

14

what defect is seen in Rabson Mendenhall syndrome

severe insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and compensatory hyperinsulinemia
(rare)