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Flashcards in ADRENERGIC - Sheet1 Deck (47):
1

This agent has greater affinity for muscarinic receptors and used for postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention

Bethanechol

2

Muscarinic that is very lipid soluble and used in glaucoma

Pilocarpine

3

Muscarinic used to treat dry mouth in Sjögren's syndrome

Pilocarpine or Cevimeline

4

Indirect-Acting ACh Agonist, alcohol, short DOA and used in diagnosis of myasthenia gravis

Edrophonium

5

Carbamate with intermediate action and used as off-label for postoperative paralytic ileus and urinary retention

Neostigmine

6

Treatment of atropine overdose and glaucoma (because lipid soluable). Enters the CNS rapidly and has a stimulant effect, which may lead to convulsions

Physostigmine

7

Treatment of myasthenia gravis and sometimes used prophylactically for organophosphate poisoning in chemical warfare

Pyridostigmine

8

Antiglaucoma organophosphate, indicated but not used much clinically anymore due to long duration of action

Echothiophate

9

Insecticide organophosphate

Malathion, parathion

10

Toxicity of cholinergics

DUMBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, salivation, and sweating)

11

The most important cause of acute deaths in cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity

Respiratory failure

12

Treatment of muscarinic symptoms in organophosphate overdose

Atropine

13

This agent competes for phosphorylated cholinesterase enzyme and regenerates enzyme if organophosphate-enzymes complex has not "aged"

Pralidoxime

14

Prototypical drug is atropine

Nonselective Muscarinic Antagonists

15

Treat manifestations of Parkinson's disease and EPS

Benztropine, trihexyphenidyl

16

Treatment of motion sickness

Scopolamine

17

Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia

Atropine and other anti-muscarinic agents

18

Bronchodilation in asthma and COPD

Ipratropium, tiotropium

19

Reduce transient hyper GI motility

Dicyclomine, methscopolamine

20

Cystitis, postoperative bladder spasms, or incontinence

Oxybutynin, dicyclomine

21

Toxicity of anticholinergics

Anti-DUMBBELSS

22

Another pneumonic for anticholinergic toxicity

dry as a bone, red as a beet, mad as a hatter, hot as a hare, blind as a bat

23

Atropine fever is the most dangerous effect and can be lethal in this population group

Infants

24

Contraindications to use of atropine

Infants, closed angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy

25

Ganglion blockers that were indicated (but not anymore) for severe hypertension

Hexamethonium, trimethaphan

26

Reversal of blockade by neuromuscular blockers

Cholinesterase inhibitors

27

Tubocurarine is the prototype, pancuronium, atracurium, vecuronium are newer short acting agent, produce competitive block at end plate nicotinic receptor, causing flaccid paralysis

Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers

28

Only member of depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, causes fasciculation during induction and muscle pain after use

Succinylcholine

29

Pneumonic for beta receptors

You have 1 heart (Beta 1) and 2 lungs (Beta 2)

30

This is the drug of choice for anaphylactic shock

Epinephrine

31

Phenylisopropylamines that are used legitimately and abused for narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, and weight reduction

Amphetamines

32

Alpha agonist used to produce mydriasis and reduce conjunctival itching and congestion caused by irritation or allergy, it does not cause cycloplegia

Phenylephrine

33

Epinephrine and dipivefrin are used for

Glaucoma

34

Newer alpha 2 agonist (apraclonidine and brimonidine) treat glaucoma

Reduce aqueous synthesis

35

Short acting Beta 2 agonists that is drug of choice in treatment of acute asthma but not recommended for prophylaxis

Albuterol

36

Longer acting Beta 2 agonists is recommended for prophylaxis of asthma

Salmeterol

37

These agents increase blood flow and may be beneficial in treatment of acute heart failure and some types of shock

Beta1 agonists

38

These agents decrease blood flow or increase blood pressure, are local decongestant, and used in therapy of spinal shock (temporary maintenance of blood pressure which may help maintain perfusion)

Alpha1 agonists

39

Shock due to septicemia or myocardial infarction is made worse by

Increasing afterload and tissue perfusion declines

40

Often mixed with local anesthetic to

Reduce the loss from area of injection

41

Chronic orthostatic hypotension can be treated with

Midodrine

42

Beta 2 agonist used to suppress premature labor, but cardiac stimulatory effects may be hazardous to mother and fetus

Terbutaline

43

Long acting sympathomimetic, sometimes used to improve urinary continence in children and elderly with enuresis

Ephedrine

44

Alpha 1 agonist toxicity

Hypertension

45

Beta 1 agonist toxicity

Sinus tachycardia and serious arrhythmias

46

Beta 2 agonist toxicity

Skeletal muscle tremor

47

The selective agents lose their selectivity at

high doses