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Flashcards in BONE.SMOOTHM.ANTIMICROB Deck (120):
1

Available bisphosphonates

Alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, pamidronate, tiludronate, and zoledronic acid

2

MOA of Bisphosphonates

Inhibits osteoclast bone resorption

3

Uses of bisphosphonates

Osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and osteolytic bone lesions, and hypercalcemia from malignancy

4

Major SE of bisphosphonates

Chemical esophagitis

5

Bisphosphonates that cannot be used on continuous basis because it caused osteomalacia

Etidronate

6

Used for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women

Calcium reguators Bisphosphonates: alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, Estrogen (HRT-Hormone replacement therapy)

7

Increase bone density, also being tested for breast CA tx.

Raloxifene (SERM-selective estrogen receptor modulator)

8

Used intranasally and decreases bone resorption

Calcitonin (salmon prep)

9

Used especially in postmenopausal women, dosage should be 1500 mg

Calcium

10

Vitamin given with calcium to ensure proper absorption

Vitamin D

11

Disease caused by excess ergot alkaloids

St. Anthony's Fire

12

A class of endogenous substances that include histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, and vasoactive peptides that work in autocrine or paracrine manner

Autacoids

13

Syndrome of hypersecretion of gastric acid and pepsin usually caused by gastrinoma; it is associated with severe peptic ulceration and diarrhea

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

14

Drug that causes contraction of the uterus

Oxytocin

15

Distribution of histamine receptors H1, H2, and H3

Smooth muscle and mast cells; stomach, heart, and mast cells; nerve endings, CNS respectively

16

1st generation antihistamine that is highly sedating

Diphendydramine

17

1st generation antihistamine that is least sedating

Chlorpheniramine

18

2nd generation antihistamines

Fexofenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine

19

Generation of antihistamine that has the most CNS effects

First generation due to being more lipid-soluble

20

Major indication for H1 receptor antagonist

Use in IgE mediated allergic reaction (allergic rhinitis, urticaria)

21

Antihistamine that is indicated for allergies, motion sickness, and insomnia

Diphenhydramine

22

H1 antagonist used in motion sickness

Dimenhydrinate and other 1st generation

23

Most common side effect of 1st generation antihistamines

Sedation, anticholinergic

24

H2 blocker that causes the most interactions with other drugs

Cimetidine

25

Clinical use for H2 blockers

Acid reflux disease, duodenal ulcer and peptic ulcer disease

26

Receptors for serotonin (5HT-1) are located

Mostly in the brain, and they mediate synaptic inhibition via increased K+ conductance

27

Triptan available in parenteral and nasal formulation

Sumatriptan

28

H1 blocker that is also a serotonin antagonist

Cyproheptadine

29

5HT2 antagonist mediate synaptic excitation in the CNS and smooth muscle contraction

Ketanserin, cyproheptadine, and ergot alkaloids (partial agonist of alpha and serotonin receptors)

30

Agents for reduction of postpartum bleeding

Oxytocin and ergonovine

31

Agents used in treatment of carcinoid tumor

Cyproheptadine

32

5HT-3 antagonist used in chemotherapeutic induced

Ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron and palonosetron

33

5ht-3 antagonist that has been MOST associated with QRS and QTc prolongation and should not be used in patients with heart disease

Dolasetron

34

Drug used in ergot alkaloids overdose, ischemia and gangrene

Nitroprusside

35

Reason ergot alkaloids are contraindicated in pregnancy

Uterine contractions

36

SE of ergot alkaloids

Hallucinations resembling psychosis

37

Ergot alkaloid used as an illicit drug

LSD

38

Dopamine agonist used in hyperprolactinemia

Bromocriptine

39

Peptide causing increased capillary permeability and edema

Bradykinin and histamine

40

Mediator of tissue pain, edema, inactivated by ACE, and may be a contributing factor to the development of angioedema

Bradykinin

41

Drug causing depletion of substance P (vasodilator)

Capsaicin

42

Prostaglandins that cause abortions

Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol), PGE2, and PGF2alpha

43

Drug that selectively inhibits COX 2

Celecoxib

44

Inhibitor of lipoxygenase

Zileuton

45

Major SE of zileuton

Liver toxicity

46

Inhibitor of leukotrienes (LTD4) receptors and used in asthma

Zafirlukast and montelukast

47

Used in pediatrics to maintain patency of ductus arteriosis

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

48

Approved for use in severe pulmonary HTN

PGI2 (epoprostenol)

49

Prostaglandin used as 2nd line treatment of erectile dysfunction

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

50

Irreversible, nonselective COX inhibitor

Aspirin (or other salicylates)

51

Class of drugs that reversibly inhibit COX

NSAIDS

52

Primary endogenous substrate for Nitric Oxidase Synthase

Arginine

53

MOA and effect of nitric oxide

Stimulates cGMP which leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation

54

Long acting beta 2 agonist used in asthma

Salmeterol

55

Muscarinic antagonist used in COPD

Ipratropium, tiotropium

56

MOA action of cromolyn

Blocks opening of Cl channels to prevent mast cell degranulation

57

Enzyme which theophylline inhibits

Phosphodiesterase

58

Methylxanthine derivative used as a remedy for intermittent claudication

Pentoxifylline

59

Antidote for severe CV toxicity of theophylline

Beta blockers

60

MOA of corticosteroids

Induce lipocortins to

61

SE of long term (>5 days) corticosteroid therapy and remedy

Adrenal suppression and weaning slowly, respectively

62

MOA of fluoroquinolones

Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV

63

MOA of penicillin

Block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting transpeptidase and block peptidoglycan cross-linkage

64

Drug used for MRSA

Vancomycin

65

Vancomycin MOA

Binds D-Ala-D-Ala on murein monomers and prevent polymerization of the murein monomers

66

Type of resistance found with vancomycin

Point mutation

67

Meningitis prophylaxis in exposed patients

Rifampin

68

Technique used to diagnose perianal itching, and the drug used to treat it

Scotch tape technique

69

Two toxicities of aminoglycosides

nephro and ototoxicity

70

Drug of choice for Legionnaires' disease

Azithromycin (or macrolides)

71

MOA of sulfonamides

Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase

72

Penicillins active against penicillinase secreting bacteria

Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin

73

Cheap wide spectrum antibiotic DOC of otitis media

Amoxicillin

74

Class of antibiotics that have 10% cross sensitivity with penicillins

Cephalosporins

75

PCN active against pseudomonas

Carbenicillin, piperacillin and ticarcillin

76

Antibiotic causing red-man syndrome, and prevention

Vancomycin, can be prevented by infusion

77

Drug causes teeth discoloration

Tetracycline

78

Mechanism of action of tetracycline

Decreases protein synthesis by binding to 30S ribosome and prevent binding of tRNA to A site

79

Drug that causes gray baby syndrome and aplastic anemia

Chloramphenicol

80

Drug notorious for causing pseudomembranous colitis

Clindamycin

81

Drug of choice for tx of pseudomembranous colitis

Metronidazole

82

Treatment of resistant pseudomembranous colitis

ORAL vancomycin

83

Anemia caused by trimethoprim

Megaloblastic anemia

84

Reason fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in children and pregnancy

Cartilage damage

85

DOC for giardia, bacterial vaginosis, pseudomembranous colitis, and trichomonas

Metronidazole

86

Treatment for TB patients (think RIPE)

Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol

87

Metronidazole SE if given with alcohol

Disulfiram-like reaction

88

Common side effect of Rifampin

Orange urine discoloration

89

MOA of nystatin

Bind ergosterol in fungal cell membrane

90

Neurotoxicity with isoniazid (INH) prevented by

Administration of Vit. B6 (pyridoxine)

91

Toxicity of amphotericin

Nephrotoxicity

92

SE seen only in men with administration of ketoconazole

Gynecomastia

93

Topical DOC in impetigo

Topical mupirocin (Bactroban)

94

DOC for influenza A and B

Oseltamivir or Zanamivir

95

DOC for RSV

Ribavirin

96

DOC for CMV retinitis

Ganciclovir

97

SE for ganciclovir

Myelosuppression

98

Anti-viral agents associated with Stephen Johnson syndrome

Nevirapine, amprenavir

99

HIV antiviral class known to have severe drug interactions by causing inhibition of metabolism

Protease inhibitors

100

Antivirals that are teratogens

Delavirdine, efavirenz, and ribavirin

101

Antivirals associated with neutropenia

Ganciclovir, zidovudine, saquinavir, interferon

102

HIV med used to reduce transmission during birth

AZT (zidovudine)

103

Drug used for African sleeping sickness

Suramin

104

Drug used in Chagas disease

Nifurtimox

105

Cephalosporins able to cross the BBB

Cefixime (2nd) and 3rd generation

106

DOC for N. gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

107

Cephalosporins that cause kernicterus in neonates

Ceftriaxone or cefuroxime

108

SE of INH

Peripheral neuritis and hepatitis

109

Aminoglycoside that is least ototoxic

Streptomycin

110

Drug used in exoerythrocytic cycle of malaria

Primaquine

111

Oral antibiotic of choice for moderate inflammatory acne

Minocycline

112

Drug of choice for leprosy

Dapsone

113

DOC for herpes and its MOA

Acyclovir; activated by viral thymidine kinase, results in inhibition of viral DNA replication

114

Anti-bacterials that cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients

Sulfonamides

115

Mechanism of action of macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin)

Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to domain V of 23S rRNA of 50S ribosome subunit

116

Antibacterials for optimal treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis

Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin

117

Antibacterials for optimal treatment of acute pyelonephritis

Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

118

Lactam that can be used in PCN allergic patients

Aztreonam

119

SE of imipenem

Seizures

120

Anti-viral with a dose limiting toxicity of pancreatitis

Didanosine (ddI)