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Flashcards in Adult Health Deck (29):
1

Australias health compared to other developed countries

Australia is at the higher end of the life expectancy scale with a life expectancy of 81.9.
We are equal third with Italy

2

1st and 2nd place on the life expectancy scale

Japan is first with 83.4 and Switzerland is seconds with 82.3

3

Last places in the life expectancy scale

United Kingdom with 80.2 and United States with 78.5

4

Why is America the lowest?

Possible reasons for America having the lowest life expectancy is due to access to unhealthy food, gun violence, poverty and limited access to health care

5

Health improvements over time

Discovery of the microscopic world, safe water and sanitation, immunisations, education and biomedical methods

6

Discovery of the microscopic world

Identification of macrobes. Eg. Bacteria (infections, viruses eg. Measles, polio and tetanus.) and parasites (eg. Worms) that cause illness, deformity and death.


Treatments and preventions have been developed

7

Safe water and sanitation.

Piping of water from its source to a safe location. (Eg. Home or community stand pipes) have decreased many water born illnesses such as chloera, malaria and worms.

Ensuring the removal of human wastes especially from drinking water sources has also helped

8

Immunisations

Programs supported by governments to ensure contagious, communicable, infectious disease are kept under control

9

Education

High literacy levels in a community mean that individuals and groups can access and use information. This is vital to good health

10

Biomedical methods

Diagnosis, treatments and cure.
Doctors, hospitals, operations and medicines. The doctors are the power people. This is all costly to the community

11

Health groups: men

More likely to work in hazardous jobs.
Experience higher rates of life threatening experiences.
Males die younger then females.
Males early mortality include prostate and lung cancer, stroke, suicide, chronic lower respiratory diseases.

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Why is men's health status lower?

Poor health status of men is because they are more likely to avoid medical treatment

13

Health groups: females

Women are less likely to be overweight.
Women have a increased prevalence of less threatening conditions such as arthritis and Alzheimers.
Females have high rates of illness and disability and are more likely to suffer from depression.

14

Main causes of early mortality for women

Coronary heart disease, stroke, dementia, Alzheimer's, lung and breast cancer

15

Health groups: high socioeconomic status

Can afford an education, healthy foods and may have extra money to participate in physical activities

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Health groups: low socioeconomic status

The mortality rate for people with a lower socioeconomic status is 80% higher than other Australian adults.
Low SES can't afford healthy food, health care or education

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Contributing factors to having a low SES

Increased smoking and alcohol consumption, sing overweight, consuming a poor diet and physical inactivity

18

Health groups: indigenous Australians

Life expectancy rates are 11.5 years younger.
70% of indigenous are dying before age 65.

19

Leading causes for lower life expectancy of indigenous are

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, injury and mental illness

20

Contributing factors to indigenous poor health

Higher smoking rates, increased alcohol, and substance abuse, reduced access to high quality food supplies and health services, poorer housing facilities and lower levels of employment and education.

21

Biomedical approach

Doctors are the power people

22

Medicare

Is Australia's compulsory, universal, public health care insurance scheme. 2% taxable income plus a surcharge if you don't have private health insurance.

23

Additional private health insurance

Ranges from $1000-$3000 per year which is mostly for private hospitals. It basically pays for a bed in a hospital if needed

24

Pharmaceutical benefit scheme PBS

Provides essential medications to people who need them regardless of their ability to pay

25

NHPAS

A collaboration of the 3 levels of governments that identified the diseases.
They encourage the development of initiatives that act to support and inform the population.

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NHPAS aim

Recognise the determinants of health and ultimately lowering rates of disease and BOD

27

Morbidity

I'll health in an individual and the ill health levels in the population

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Mortality

Deaths in a population

29

Burden of disease

Measures the gap between current health status and the ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and illness