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Health And Human Development > Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (58):
1

Zygote

The new cell that is created after fertilisation

2

Blastocyst

A cluster of cells in which some cell differentiation has occurred

3

Endometrium

The lining of the uterus wall

4

Chorion

The membrane surrounding the foetus that contributes to the formation of the placenta

5

Neonate

An infant less then 4 weeks old

6

Apgar scale

As assessment of how a baby is doing at birth

7

Fontanelles

A space between the bones of the skull in an infants head

8

Mortality

Number of deaths

9

Prevalence

The number of cases of a particular disease present in a population at a given time

10

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease in a population during a given period

11

Pregnancy stages

germinal, Embryonic, foetal

12

Germinal stage timing

Fertilisation- plantation (0-2 weeks)

13

Germinal stage features

Ovulation- intercourse- fertilisation- mitosis- implantation

14

Embryonic stage timing

Implantation- 8th week (3-8 weeks)

15

Embryonic stage features

Characterised by cell differentiation and its the critical stage.
Most organs and system are formed (brain, spinal cord, neural tube ).
Limbs finger and toes develop

16

Differentiation

Cells become different cells, some become the placenta, others become the embryo- heart skin or bone cells

17

Embryonic stage risks

Teratogens such as alcohol, drugs, medicine or smoking

18

Teratogen

Am atmospheric pollutant that can cause birth defects such as rubella

19

Foetal stage timing

9th week til birth (9-40 weeks )

20

Foetal stage features

Rapid growth. All organs and systems are formed, sex organs begin to take place (15 week), movement occurs and the senses begin to function (25th weeks)

21

Maturation

Unfolding of genetic potentials

22

Placenta

Connects the foetus to the uterine wall of the mother, providing the foetus with nutrients and oxygen and removing its waste products

23

Stages of labour

Labour, birth, placenta

24

Labour

Water breaks- contractions occur- dilation of the cervix occurs.
LONGEST STAGE (8-12 hours)

25

Birth

Foetus moves through the birth canal and the mum assists my pushing. Once the baby comes out the umbilical cord is cut

26

Placenta

To remove the placenta a few contractions occur and it dislodges from the uterus

27

Health issues

Maternal mortality, foetal mortality, prenatal morbidity and maternal morbidity

28

Maternal mortality

The deaths among women who are pregnant where the cause of death is attributed to the pregnancy itself. Causes are cardiovascular conditions and haemorrhage(dont Always lead to death)

29

Prenatal morbidity

Conditions that may be diagnosed in unborn babies include neural tube defects and Down syndrome

30

Neural tube defects

A group of conditions that occur when the neural tube doesn't fuse completely.
Spina bifida, anencephaly, encephalocele

31

NTD- Spina bifida

Occurs when part of the neural tube fails to fuse. The bones the develop into the spine are unable to form properly, leading to an opening in part of the spine

32

Anencephaly

When the neural tube doesn't close at the head and the top part of the brain, skull and scalp are missing

33

Encephalocele

When part of the brain is pushed through an opening in the skull

34

Down syndrome

Condition cause by a chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome produces a number of symptoms including slant of the eyes, flat round face, smaller and slow intellectual development

35

Maternal morbidity

Gestational diabetes, mental health, pre-eclampsia and ectopic pregnancy

36

Gestational diabetes

Characterised by blood glucose levels. Starts during pregnancy and results from the body's impaired ability to metabolise blood glucose

37

Mental health

Depression has usually been associated with the period after birth

38

Pre-eclampsia

Disorder of pregnancy characterised by hypertension, protein in the urine and fluid retention. Leading to swollen hands, feet and face

39

Ectopic pregnancy

When the embryo implants itself somewhere in the mothers reproductive system other then the uterus

40

Foetal mortality

The death of babies over 20 weeks gestation or weighing at least 400 grams. Congenital abnormalities, unexplained antepartum death, spontaneous preterm births and maternal conditions

41

Congenital abnormalities

Result from missing or I'll formed body structures (birth defects)

42

Unexplained antepartum births

Babies who show no signs of life

43

Spontaneous preterm births

When labour begins without medical intervention between the 20th and 37th week of pregnancy

44

Maternal conditions

I'll health of the mother that contributes to the death of the foetus

45

Health issues of Australian women and their unborn babies

Genetics, maternal nutrition, maternal vaccination and alcohol consumption

46

Genetics

Genetics play the most significant role in the health and development of unborn babies because it determines everything about them. 50% from mum 50% from dad

47

Maternal nutrition

Important because it prepares the mothers body to support new life. Women need to consume a well balanced diet to meet their own needs and their babies needs

48

Folate

Protects against neural tube defects

49

Iodine

Important for healthy development of the brain and nervous system

50

Iron

Needed for haemoglobin that carries oxygen around the body

51

Calcium

Required for the formation of the teeth and bones

52

Maternal vaccination

Vaccinations help protect a women and her unborn baby from a number of diseases such as rubella, chickenpox and mumps

53

Alcohol consumption

Alcohol crosses the placenta and can be detrimental to foetal health. Alcohol consu,prion can lead to LBW, CNS damage, mental retardation or face abnormalities

54

Trimester

The pregnancy period divides by 3

55

LBW

Babies born less then 2.5kg

56

Foetal mortality trend

In 2012, the foetal death rate per 1000 total births ranged from 6.4 for babies of mothers aged 25-29

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NTD trend

There has been a small decline in overall prevalence of NTDs per 10000 births between 1998 and 2008

58

Maternal mortality

Between 2006-2010 maternal mortality rates for aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders were more then 3 times as high for other women