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Flashcards in Child Health And Individual Development Deck (48):
1

Developmental tasks of infancy

Learning to walk, learning to talk, learning variety of foods and controlling bladder and bowel

2

Eating a variety of foods

Human breastmilk is the ideal food for newborns. In the first week the breast secrets colostrum which is rich in antibodies to help the infant develop their immunity.
Teeth begin to appear after 6-8 months, this is when solid foods are introduced

3

Learning to control bladder and bowel

As muscles and the brain mature the ability to recognise signals and use muscles to control sensations develop

4

Learning to walk

Head control, roll over, sit, crawl, creep, stand, one step, walk.
Bones ossify, muscles strengthen and CNS matures

5

Learning to talk

Genetically inherited ability, first words are learnt through imitation. Babbling sounds become recognisable as words and vocabulary increases due to parent interactions

6

Infancy reflexes

Rooting, sucking, startle, walking, stepping and grasping reflexes

7

Rooting reflex

If the cheek is touched the baby will turn its head in that direction. This allows the baby to find nourishment

8

Sucking reflex

The baby begins to suck in anything that is put in its mouth. This allows the baby to receive food

9

Startle reflex

If the baby loses support of its head and neck it throws its arms out as if to grab onto something

10

Walking reflex

An infant attempts to walk if it's held above the ground

11

Stepping reflex

If an infant is held with one leg in contact with an object it will automatically lift the other foot

12

Grasping reflex

A baby with grasp anything that's put in its hand

13

Infancy development
Physical

Weight doubles by 6 months and triples by 12, recognise familiar faces and sounds and have the ability to lift head, roll over, crawl and walk

14

Infancy development
Social

Dependant on parent. Learn to smile and recognise facial expressions, begin to understand and enjoy games and learn how to share and other acceptable behaviours

15

Infancy development
Emotional

Revolves around family. When they're hurt or distressed they can be comforted by family, emotional attachment makes an infant feel secure, safe and loved. Fear may be shown when confronted with unfamiliar things and frustration is shows through tantrums

16

Infancy development
Intellectual

Collect information from putting things in their mouths, can recognise their name, learn names of their favourite people, places or shows. Begin to learn that an object still exists if it can't be seen and language development is rapid (150-300 words)

17

Early childhood development
Physical

Height roughly increases by 6cm and weight by 2.5 kg. Limbs and torso become more proportionate to the head, kids begin to lose baby teeth and kicking, throwing and catching skills develop

18

Early childhood development
Social

Begin to attend social events which teaches children acceptable behaviour, they learn how to share at kinder and independence begins to develop

19

Early childhood development
Emotional

Develop a sense of empathy and may care for upset people. Like to show off their achievements and may get jealous if attention is focused elsewhere, begin to develop identity.

20

Early childhood development
Intellectual

Learning new words and language occurs rapidly, begin to question the world around them, attention span lengthens allowing them to follow basic instructions and learn how to write basic letters and how to count up to 10/20

21

Late childhood development
Physical

Size and strength increases and children can engage in more complex physical activity such as basketball. Writing becomes more legible, body proportions continue to change, permanent teeth continue to development

22

Late childhood development
Social

Gain a lot of social connection outside of the family due to attending school. Sharing, communication and conflict resolution are further developed, acquire a sense of right and wrong

23

Late childhood development
Emotional

Children begin to identify how others are feeling, become more skilled in conveying emotions in words, self concept is established.

24

Late childhood development
Intellectual

Most of this takes place at school, problem solving skills develop, and reading, writing and language skills all develop

25

Determinants of health that affect children
Biological

Genetics, birth weight and body weight

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Determinants of health that affect children
Behavioural

Oral hygiene, breastfeeding, vaccinations, eating habits and level of physical activity

27

Determinants of health that affect children
Physical environment

Tobacco smoking in the home, housing environment, fluoridation of water and access to recreational facilities

28

Determinants of health that affect children
Social

Parental education, parenting practices, media and access to health care

29

Biological
Genetics

A child's genetic make up determines the rate and timing of physical development as a result of the production of hormones, the gender, development of genetic conditions and predisposition to disease

30

Biological
Birthweight

A key indicator of infant health and has a major influence on a baby's chance of survival

31

Behavioural
Level of physical activity

It's important that children are physically active and engaging in at least 1 hour of physical activity a day. If a child isnt physically active it can lead to obesity which can later result in health problems

32

Behavioural
Breastfeeding

The healthiest start for infants because it contains all the nutrients required by the baby. It is recommended that the baby is breastfed for the first 6 months before swapping to formula

33

Physical environment
Tobacco smoking in the home

Passive smoking is dangerous for children because their lungs are still developing. This smoke exposes non smokers to majority of the same toxic chemicals that direct smokers inhale

34

Physical environment
Housing environment

A house should ideally provide she,tear and a clean live which protects children from onside dangers.

35

Social environ,net
Media

Media can have negative and positive effects on children depending on their age, and whether it's regulated by parents or not

36

Social environment
Parental education

The formal level of education that is achieved by parents and the level of knowledge that may be attained through informal means

37

Principals of development

1. Development occurs in a orderly, predictable way
2. Development is continual
3. There are individual variations on the rate and timing of development
4. Development follows predictable patterns
5. Development proceeds from simple to complex

38

Development occurs in a orderly, predictable way

Development is predictable and experts have a rough idea when each milestone will occur. Roll over, crawl. Stand, walk etc

39

Development is continual

Individuals are always developing from conception until death

40

There are individual variations in the rate and timing of development

You cannot compare kids because they learn at different times and speeds

41

Development follows predictable patterns

Cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development are particularly evident during the prenatal, infant and childhood stages.

42

Cephalocaudal development

Refers to growth and development that occurs from head down. First the gain control of head muscles, then should muscles etc

43

Proximodistal development

Occurs from the centre of the body in an outward direction. Eg. In the uterus the spine develops first and toes and fingers develop
Last

44

Development proceeds from simple to complex

Thought processes and motor skills go from simple to complex. Once the simple aspects have been attained they can be built upon to make the skills more complex.

45

Infancy gross motor skills

Lifting head and chest when lying down, sit up alone, crawls on hands and knees, walks without help and can kick a ball

46

Infancy fine motor skills

Reaches for toys, transfer toy from one hand to another, picks up small objects, scribbles with a crayon and turns pages of a book one at a time

47

Early childhood gross motor skills

Walks up and down stairs, hops on one foot without support and learns how to skip

48

Early childhood fine motor skills

Cuts with small scissors, draws complete circles and prints their name