Flashcards in Mid Year Exam Deck (56):
Definition of Burden of Disease
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries and the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability.
Definition of physical health
Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and it's systems
Definition of mental health
State of wellbeing in which the individual realises their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to contribute to the community. Eg. Feelings, self esteem
Definition of social health
Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and co operative way. Eg. Friends
Causes of death for youth
Injuries, poisoning, cancer, cardiovascular disease and diseases of the nervous system. Injuries are things such as car accidents, self harm, drowning or violence
Mental health as a youth concern
Bad mental health such as, feeling sad, having a low self esteem, low confidence levels and lots of stress is a health concern because it can lead to depression and sometimes death.
Inter relationship of health and development
P: can be physically active meaning fitness levels reduce and gain weight could occur.
M: could become depressed about missing out on school, sport etc.
S: could make friends in the hospital
Health ---> development
M: can affect and individual because they may find it hard/easy to make friends based on how they're feeling.
P: can affect physical development because if someone has type 2 diabetes it can cause them to gain weight.
S: can affect social development because they may find it hard to make friends.
Development ---> health
P: affect social health because they may develop before their friends.
I: affect mental health because they may not understand certain concepts.
E: affect physical health because they might get sick from being depressed.
S: affect mental health because they might be happy with their friendships
Boys: between 10-15
Girls: between 8-13
Primary sex characteristics
Parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction
First ovulation, first menstruation, ovaries, clitoris, vagina, uterus and labia increase in size.
First ejaculation, testes start to produce sperm and penis grows
Secondary sex characteristics
Traits arising from changes in both makes and females at puberty
Oily skin, body hair, increased fat to muscle ration, breasts develop, hips widen.
Oily skin, body hair, voice lowers, shoulders broaden, increased muscle mass
Calculated by weight (kg)/ height (m)2
Determinants of health definition
Factors that raise or lower the level of health in a population or individual
Biological determinants definition
Concerned with the body's cells, tissues, organs and systems and how they function
Genetics, body weight, hormone change
Behavioural determinants definition
The actions or patterns of living of an individual or group that affect health
Sun protection, physical activity, sexual practices, drug abuse, smoking, alcohol, skills in developing and maintaining friendships and seeking help from health professionals
Rights and responsibilities of youth
Rights: right to live in a safe home with personal space, have clean drinking water, and have access to an education.
Responsibilities: wearing sunscreen, saying no to peer pressure, safe sexual practices
Physical environment definition
The physical surrounding in which we live, work, and play
Smoking in the home, housing environment, work environment, access to recreational facilities
Social environment definition
Aspects of society that impact on health.
Family cohesion, media, SES, community participation and access to education.
Family cohesion definition
The bonds between family members
Family cohesion PMS
P: if a family doesn't encourage a child to participate in physical activity or to eat healthy it was cause them to gain weight.
M: if a family isn't close it can cause kids to become sad or depressed.
S: if the family is close them a child might be reliant on their family, if not, friends will fill this role.
Biological determinants links to health
Genetics: freckles and pale skin can lead to skin cancer. Tall genes can lead to joint pain.
Hormone: males can get prostate cancer and females ovarian cancer. Females also at risk of osteoporosis after menopause due to lack of oestrogen.
Body weight: people can get sick due to over/under eating. Develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease or joint injury(p) depression anxiety (m) bullying (s)
Biological determinants links to development
Hormones: girl usually develop quicker then boys.
Genetics: early, late developers.
Body weight: body type
Definiton of health
A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Builds, repairs and maintains body cells.
Eg. Meat, fish, eggs and nuts
Provides majority of an individual's energy needs
Builds bones and hard tissue.
Eg. Milk, cheese and yoghurt
Short term consequences of fibre deficiencies
Elevated cholesterol, weight gain, high blood pressure, constipation and over eating
Short term consequences of vitamin A deficiencies
Poor immune system, become sick, from bacteria infections
Short term consequences of vitamin c deficiencies
Lack of iron, poor tissue structure
Long term consequences of calcium deficiencies
Osteoporosis, reduced bone density
Long term consequences of fat deficiencies
Increased process of atherosclerosis, increased levels of LDL in the blood, increased levels of stroke and heart attack
Food selection models
Australian guidelines to healthy eating, the healthy eating pyramid
Australian guidelines to healthy eating: developed
Developed by the Australian government
Australian guidelines to healthy eating: structure
Pie chart: 5 sections are, carbs, fruits, vegetables, meat and other products, milk and other products
Australian guidelines to healthy eating: purpose
Provides nutrition advice with the aim of reducing short and long term consequences of nutrition imbalances
Australian guidelines to healthy eating: strengths
Shows what foods are in each section, shows the proportions of foods that should be consumed, and it has recommendations to eat fats in small amounts and drink lots of water
Australian guidelines to healthy eating: weakness
Doesn't show exact amount of what people should eat
Healthy eating pyramid: produced
Healthy eating pyramid: structure
Pyramid with 4 sections, top: fats, 2nd: dairy and protein, 3rd: grains, bottom: fruit and vegetable
Healthy eating pyramid: purpose
Helps people select foods that provide us with a balanced diet and recognises the role of exercise in good health
Healthy eating pyramid: strengths
Guide people in having a balanced diet
Healthy eating pyramid: weakness
Doesn't provide proportions for specific age groups
The development of a full range of emotions and the optimal way in dealing with them
Definition of individual human development
The series of orderly, predictable changes that occur from conception til death
Definition of intellectual development
Development of processes in the brain such as thought, memory and knowledge
Definition of physical development
Changes to the body and its systems