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Flashcards in Mid Year Exam Deck (56):

Definition of Burden of Disease

A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries and the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability.


Definition of physical health

Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and it's systems


Definition of mental health

State of wellbeing in which the individual realises their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to contribute to the community. Eg. Feelings, self esteem


Definition of social health

Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and co operative way. Eg. Friends


Causes of death for youth

Injuries, poisoning, cancer, cardiovascular disease and diseases of the nervous system. Injuries are things such as car accidents, self harm, drowning or violence


Mental health as a youth concern

Bad mental health such as, feeling sad, having a low self esteem, low confidence levels and lots of stress is a health concern because it can lead to depression and sometimes death.


Inter relationship of health and development
Broken leg

P: can be physically active meaning fitness levels reduce and gain weight could occur.
M: could become depressed about missing out on school, sport etc.
S: could make friends in the hospital


Health ---> development

M: can affect and individual because they may find it hard/easy to make friends based on how they're feeling.
P: can affect physical development because if someone has type 2 diabetes it can cause them to gain weight.
S: can affect social development because they may find it hard to make friends.


Development ---> health

P: affect social health because they may develop before their friends.
I: affect mental health because they may not understand certain concepts.
E: affect physical health because they might get sick from being depressed.
S: affect mental health because they might be happy with their friendships


Puberty timing

Boys: between 10-15
Girls: between 8-13


Primary sex characteristics

Parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction


PSC females

First ovulation, first menstruation, ovaries, clitoris, vagina, uterus and labia increase in size.


PSC Boys

First ejaculation, testes start to produce sperm and penis grows


Secondary sex characteristics

Traits arising from changes in both makes and females at puberty


SSC females

Oily skin, body hair, increased fat to muscle ration, breasts develop, hips widen.


SSC males

Oily skin, body hair, voice lowers, shoulders broaden, increased muscle mass



Calculated by weight (kg)/ height (m)2


Determinants of health definition

Factors that raise or lower the level of health in a population or individual


Biological determinants definition

Concerned with the body's cells, tissues, organs and systems and how they function


Biological determinants

Genetics, body weight, hormone change


Behavioural determinants definition

The actions or patterns of living of an individual or group that affect health


Behavioural determinants

Sun protection, physical activity, sexual practices, drug abuse, smoking, alcohol, skills in developing and maintaining friendships and seeking help from health professionals


Rights and responsibilities of youth

Rights: right to live in a safe home with personal space, have clean drinking water, and have access to an education.
Responsibilities: wearing sunscreen, saying no to peer pressure, safe sexual practices


Physical environment definition

The physical surrounding in which we live, work, and play


Physical environment

Smoking in the home, housing environment, work environment, access to recreational facilities


Social environment definition

Aspects of society that impact on health.


Social environment

Family cohesion, media, SES, community participation and access to education.


Family cohesion definition

The bonds between family members


Family cohesion PMS

P: if a family doesn't encourage a child to participate in physical activity or to eat healthy it was cause them to gain weight.
M: if a family isn't close it can cause kids to become sad or depressed.
S: if the family is close them a child might be reliant on their family, if not, friends will fill this role.


Biological determinants links to health

Genetics: freckles and pale skin can lead to skin cancer. Tall genes can lead to joint pain.
Hormone: males can get prostate cancer and females ovarian cancer. Females also at risk of osteoporosis after menopause due to lack of oestrogen.
Body weight: people can get sick due to over/under eating. Develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease or joint injury(p) depression anxiety (m) bullying (s)


Biological determinants links to development

Hormones: girl usually develop quicker then boys.
Genetics: early, late developers.
Body weight: body type


Definiton of health

A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity



Builds, repairs and maintains body cells.
Eg. Meat, fish, eggs and nuts



Provides majority of an individual's energy needs



Builds bones and hard tissue.
Eg. Milk, cheese and yoghurt


Short term consequences of fibre deficiencies

Elevated cholesterol, weight gain, high blood pressure, constipation and over eating


Short term consequences of vitamin A deficiencies

Poor immune system, become sick, from bacteria infections


Short term consequences of vitamin c deficiencies

Lack of iron, poor tissue structure


Long term consequences of calcium deficiencies

Osteoporosis, reduced bone density


Long term consequences of fat deficiencies

Increased process of atherosclerosis, increased levels of LDL in the blood, increased levels of stroke and heart attack


Food selection models

Australian guidelines to healthy eating, the healthy eating pyramid


Australian guidelines to healthy eating: developed

Developed by the Australian government


Australian guidelines to healthy eating: structure

Pie chart: 5 sections are, carbs, fruits, vegetables, meat and other products, milk and other products


Australian guidelines to healthy eating: purpose

Provides nutrition advice with the aim of reducing short and long term consequences of nutrition imbalances


Australian guidelines to healthy eating: strengths

Shows what foods are in each section, shows the proportions of foods that should be consumed, and it has recommendations to eat fats in small amounts and drink lots of water


Australian guidelines to healthy eating: weakness

Doesn't show exact amount of what people should eat


Healthy eating pyramid: produced

Nutrition Australia


Healthy eating pyramid: structure

Pyramid with 4 sections, top: fats, 2nd: dairy and protein, 3rd: grains, bottom: fruit and vegetable


Healthy eating pyramid: purpose

Helps people select foods that provide us with a balanced diet and recognises the role of exercise in good health


Healthy eating pyramid: strengths

Guide people in having a balanced diet


Healthy eating pyramid: weakness

Doesn't provide proportions for specific age groups


Emotional development

The development of a full range of emotions and the optimal way in dealing with them


Definition of individual human development

The series of orderly, predictable changes that occur from conception til death


Definition of intellectual development

Development of processes in the brain such as thought, memory and knowledge


Definition of physical development

Changes to the body and its systems


Definition of social development

The increasing complexity of behaviour patterns used in relationships with others