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Flashcards in Adverse drug reactions Deck (47)
1

Type A

Augmented pharmacological effects
-dose dependent and predictable

2

Type B

Bizarre effects - dose independent and unpredictable

3

Type C

Chronic effects

4

Type D

Delayed effects

5

Type E

End of treatment effects

6

Type F

Failure of therapy

7

Type A diuretic effect

Pre-renal failure, hypotension, hypovolemia

8

Type A ACEi/ARB effect?

Pre-renal failure, hypotension, hypovolemia

9

Type A gentamicin effect

Renal - ATN

10

Type A sulphonamide effect

Renal - ATN

11

Type A aspirin effect

Renal - ATN

12

Type A side effect of methysergide and chemotherapy

Post renal - retroperitoneal fibrosis, crystaluria, urinary calculi

13

What is methysergide used to treat?

Cluster headaches

14

Examples of type B drug effects?

1) Drug rashes
2) Bone marrow aplasia –Chloramphenicol antibiotic
3) Hepatic necrosis - halothane

15

Side effect of chloramphenicol (type B)

Bone marrow aplasia

16

Side effect of halothane

Hepatic necrosis

17

Type B reactions and mortality

High mortality

18

Type C effect of steroid therapy

Cushings

19

Type C effect of beta blockers

Diabetes

20

Type C effect of NSAIDs

Hypertension

21

Type C reactions emphasise the need for what?

Drug monitoring

-these effects can be anticipated but the patient MUST be warned before starting therapy!

22

Examples of Type D reactions

Secondary malignancies post chemotherapy

Craniofacial abnormalities in children of women taking isotretinoin

23

Delayed side effect of isotretinoin?

Craniofacial abnormalities in children of mothers taking isotretinoin

24

Type E Beta blocker effect

Angina following rapid withdrawal

-abrupt withdrawal
-rebound effects

25

Type E Steroid effect

Steroid withdrawal and Addisonian crisis

-loss of physiological "coping"

26

Type E effect of Anticonvulsant withdrawal

Changes in epilepsy frequency

-mechanism dependent biological activity

27

Theophylline reacts with...

Macrolide abx

28

Statins react with...

Statins and macrolides
Statins and fibrates

29

TCAs react with

Type 1 anti-arrythmics

30

ACEi and sulfonylureas

ACEis increase hypoglycemic effect of sulfonylureas

31

Clopidogrel reacts with...

PPIs

32

Grapfruite juice inhibits which enzyme

Cyp P450

33

Ginko biloba (used to treat dementia) reacts with which type of drug?

Anti-coagulant

34

Saw palmetto is used for BPH, it may react with which type of drug?

Anticoagulant

35

Glucosamine is used for OA, it may react with which type of drug

Anticoagulant
?hyperglycemia

36

St John's wort is used for depression, which drug may it interact with?

The pill

37

Patients with which disease have an increased risk of drug induced confusion?

Parkinsons

38

Which drugs can exacerbate CHF?

NSAIDs/COX-2/TZDs

39

Urinary retention in BPH patients can be caused by which type of drug?

Anti-cholinergics

40

Constipation is worsened by which drugs?

Calcium, anti-cholinergics, CCBs

41

Which drugs lower seizure thresholds?

Neuroleptics, tramadol and quinolones

42

Bananas,oranges, green leafy vegetables (K+-rich) interact with

ACEis, ARBs, K-sparing diuretics

43

Apples, chickpeas, spinach, nuts, spinach, kiwi, broccoli
(Vitamin E & K)

Warfarin

44

Chicken, turkey, milk, soy,cheese, yogurt (alter PH) – Interacts with:

Antibiotics, thyroid meds
Digoxin, diuretics

45

Grapefruit, Apple, Orange, & Cranberry (Cytochrome P450) interact with

Statins, anti-histamines

46

Yellow card scheme?

Yellow card with suspected drug reactions etc

47

Drug-drug interactions, which part of the BNF would you use to check?

Appendix 1